Robert W. Hicks Diary

Below you can read the full transcription of Robert Hicks’ Diary. This diary was transcribed and edited by Timothy Elliot.

Confederate Diary of Robert W. Hicks:


March, 1862

March 14: I inlisted [enlisted] & mustered in March 14th 1862.[1] I Recruited under Captain Sale for Captain A. Jurdin [Alexander Jordan][2]. H.A.L. the recruits organized a (March 20)[3] Company under Captain Sale H.A.L.

April, 1862

April 14: Left home arrived in Lynchburg the same.

April 15: W.E. Hicks Rec’d half Bounty in Lynchburg $25.00 Rec’d balance on uniform other half Bounty and 2 months wages to May the 1 44.22[4] Rec’d of Captain L.A. Sale $25.00 Half Bounty in Lynchburg.[5]

April 16: left Lynchburg & arrived in Richmond same and camped in the Fairgrounds caled [called] Camp Lee about 3 thousand troops & peices [pieces] of cannons all looking daily to be caled to the Battlefield Squad drilling a little whilst hear [here] and Detailed for city gard [guard] frequently Moved to Marian Hill plank shanties and good cooking stoves fine water Batterry (Battery) No. 2-6-32 (Battery Number 2 with six 32 pounder cannons) pounders mounted drilled at the piecies [pieces] several days 1 death in our Company – Eubank a beautiful ellivation [elevation] 4 miles below Richmond.

April 19: I was appointed 4 Sergent [4th Sergeant] By Capt. L.A. Sale.[6]

May, 1862

May 4: I taken the mumps on both sides Return to Camp Lee Pitch our tents.

Mon. May 12: Orders to march knapsacks on countermanded new orders to Drurys Bluff I being not quite well of the mumps was left in charge of the sick numbering 30 thare [there] was heavy firing for several hours our men all exposed to the shells our 7 kiled [killed] 5 wounded Enimy [Enemy] lost 60 kiled Kiled hugh [Hugh] Laughlin of our Company

May 21: They Returned to Camp Lee our Company joined Col. Goods [Goode’s] Regt. [Regiment] 4[th] VA. heavy artillery [artillery].

Sun. May 25: Orders to march to Fulton Hill 5 miles Distance 1 ½ miles below Richmond.

Mon. May 26: Struck tents and marched arrived S.D. [same day] Rained in the Evening & Co. sent to Marian Hill after straw to sleep on.

Tues. May 27: Thing quiet with some cannonading 6 or 8 miles and 2 Balloons visible one on each side good water.

Wed. May 28: Sunshine & Rain & anxieties of another day.

Thurs. May 29: Co. ordered to form line to Receive armes [arms] Delivered to us By Col. Goode mostly Missippi [Mississippi] Rifles some with Sword Bayonets some without 58 out of 117 Ready or Reported for Duty Cartrage [cartridge] Boxes & 30 rounds of cartages and caps 3 days provissons [provisions] then to the line of Battle Hugar’s[7] [Huger’s] army pased [passed] here at sun set great cheering & enthusiasm.

Fri. May 30: marched at 10 o’clock down the river 2 or 3 miles below Drury’s Bluff to meet the gun Boats which was coming up and after marching 8 or 9 miles below Fulton Hill we met Jeneral [General] Wise and his men and found the Boats had turned back and one of the most terrific thunderstorms I ever witnessed Lightning & Thunder & Rain no shelter all wett then turned back a mile laid out in the Rain all night our camp in a little spring field.

Sat. May 31: Dried out our clothes Rubed [rubbed] up our guns  drilled gard [guard] the camp and things quiet today.

June, 1862

Sun. June 1: Misting rain Driled [drilled] in manual of armes heavy cannonading on the line above us commenced at 5 A.M. raged until 11 1/2 accompanied by the constant vollies [volleys] of musketry & Rifles it is now 3 oclock and the decision of the Battle is unnone [unknown] to our camp orders to be ready to martch [march] at a minutes warning three days rations to cook Bake Bread and fry meat in double quick. Heavy firing at or near Drury Bluff continued for an hour with intervuls [intervals] the cos [cause] unnone surposed [supposed] to effect a landing reported at night that the enemy was landing below the bluff but not confirmed.

Mon. June 2: Rain clouds this morning early now clear intensely hot all quiet up to 9 oclock reported 6 or 7000 kiled and wounded on our side yestady[8] & day before engagement enemy Repulsed and loss very heavy 2 o’clock orders to march went a bout 2 miles formed line of Battle orderd [ordered] to load at will the enemy vessels in sight Remained 1 hour and Returned to camp 2 or 3 hundred yards above whare [where] we was before in a ½ hour ordered to pitch tents at dark and 1 or 2 hours elapsed and pack up struck tents load baggage wagons the enemy was advancing by this time it was a rainin [raining] wee [we] begin to fall a bout on the ground with guns in hand for sleep thare was intense excitement Broak [broke] out in camp at first surposed to be the enemy cavelry [cavalry] when wee roused up found 2 or 3 mules Broak loose from the wagons running through camp with the harness on Thundering & Lightning & raining.

Tues. June 3: Morning came looking every minute to be ordered out in line of Battle but the Yankee vessels went back the Coln. [Colonel] ordered us to pitch tents which was done.

Wed. June 4: had but few tents with us so we Built shanties arbers [arbors] to shelter from Rain hard Crackers & fat meat but good water.

Thurs. June 5: heavy firing commenced 9 oclock soon followed by rappid [rapid] vollies of infantry which is now raging without intermission above us near the sububs [suburbs] of Richmond.

Fri. June 6: Nothing of striking note Scatering [scattering] shots through the day which is hearn [heard] every day.

Sat. June 7: rain in the morning sunshine in the evening ordered to be ready at a minute and keep a days rashions [rations] cooked ready drilling and camp gard kept up every day.

Sun. June 8: A Jeneral examination persons of the camp and inspection of arms commenced 7 oclock A.M. no drill nor dress parade things quiet.

Mon. June 9: Orders to be ready to march at a minutes minutes[9] warning a great stir and activity among the courriers [couriers] riding to & fro rumers [rumors] from Richmond of another victory By Jackson over Fremont order countermanded.

Tues. June 10: The morning opens with heavy rain which continues up to this time 3 oclock scattering firing towards Richmond rumers of our Regt. joining Jackson not confirmed.

Wed. June 11: Nothing interesting to day all quiet.

Thurs. June 12: Clear day 25 men Lieut. Fellers[10] and mee [me] sent out on picket 9 gun Boats 3 miles below us some good Butter milk.

Fri. June 13: Returned to camp from picket the enemy is Reported going down the Chickehomeny[11] [Chickahominy] Swamp rumored that Jenl. [Gen.] Wise Brigade reinforcing Stonewall Jackson on Monday not affirmed.

Sat. June 14: Nothing of special note returns from Jacksons Battle with Fremont & Shields.[12] Enemies loss 6,000 our loss 600  quiet.

Sun. June 15: Notice to be ready to march orders to martch [march] at 3 o’clock a desperate thunder cloud hard Rain started up toward Richmond waded swamps and branches knee deep and swamps rain and mud 3 or 4 miles turned square to the rite [right] 2 or 3 miles towards the Chickihominy Swamp the Yankees had driven in our Pickets taken a[n] overseer negroes & mules and garn [gone] Back before we got there wee Returned to camp landed at dark gave the Regt. a drink of whiskey all wett and raining all the time.

Mon. June 16: Cannonading over towards James River at works a good many complaining from exposure yestady.[13] Rec’d of Capt. Sale 52.46 half Bounty Balance on clothing and 2 months wages up to the 1 day May.

Tues. June 17: Stewarts[14] [Stuart’s] daring trip between the lines confirmed captured 175 prisoners 3 or 400 mules 1,000,000 of Dollars worth of stores his loss was one man who was leading a heavy charge ordered to march to another encampment whare wee are now one mile from the river below Drurys Bluff got hear at dark laid out without tents.

Wed. June 18: Me Leut. Beard and 25 men from our company left this morning 3 oclock 3 or 4 miles below here on picket ¾ of a mile below us lies several gunboats good luck we struck some Butter milk and corn bread quite a treat the evening rain set up all night.

Thurs. June 19: The morning clear we returned to camp orderly Clark sent to Bedford to Bring in the absent Private Mills D. Franklin for the same they left with joy glad to see home again.

Fri. June 20: The morning opens fine no Excitement rumers in camp to day that France and England recognising [recognizing] the south good water.

Sat. June 21: A Beautiful day 30 or 40 on the sick list here some 4 or 5 at Fulton Hill 10 or 12 at home 2 or 3 in Richmond hospital leaves a bout half the Co. for duty.

Sun. June 22: Preaching by a Baptist minister in center of camp fine weather bacon 75 cts. [cents] per lb. Flower [flour] $11 per Barrell [barrel] shugar 75 c. per lb. coffee 2.25 per lb. green Tea $10 per lb. molasses 2.25 per galon [gallon] other artickles [articles] in proportion eggs 1.00 per doz. Richmond prices various roumers [rumors] in the papers about peace.

Mon. June 23: Clear morning commenced throwing up Breast works clost[15] [close] to the River on widow Chafins[16] [Chaffin] farm for field peicies [pieces] & infantry this evening Rainy day quiet.

Tues. June 24: I am Sergent [Sergeant] of camp guard to day fine day things quiet nothing of note.

Wed. June 25: I was one of the detail for fatigue duty morning clear the evening rain return to camp heavy cannonading at dusk orders to be ready to march at a minutes warning sleep guns in hand.

Thurs. June 26: a beautiful morning drilling 2 a day dress perrade [parade] once Roal [roll] call 5 times a day at 4 & 7 A.M. at 5 & 8 P.M. cannonading in the morning scattering in the evening the most desperate roaring of cannons followed By heavy vollies [volleys] of infantry continued without intervils until 10 or 12 oclock at night great excitement in our camp orders to be ready to march at a minutes warning repulsed the enemy great slaughter on boath [both] sides but victory gloriously ours.

Fri. June 27: Clear & warm a few scattering shots as usual thing[s] quiet I went bathing.

Sat. June 29 [28]: Leut. Saunders & myself and 24 men Started this morning 3 or 4 miles below camp rite [right] on the river 5 gun Boats in sight just below us they fired 3 rounds and Ro. off out of sight but we are looking for them Back 12 o’clock our Pickets reinforced the Regt. strike tents and moved 2 miles higher up the river great confusion in camp Wise Brigade with the Exception of our Regt. ordered below to Reinforce others Continued firing fried churries [cherries] & corn Bread for dinner Jeneral ___[17] passed our camp with 15,000 men.

Sun. June 28 [29]: The 2 days Saturday & Sunday are reversed little Rain some fiting [fighting] the Yankees falling back sound of armies not so Distinct corn Batter cakes for breakfast my cooking.

Mon. June 30: Returned from picket to our new camp bad water without sleeping a wink Deliteful [delightful] morning the most Desperate roaring cannon & small armes constantly without interval the Enemy still retreating close pursued By our men last night they hardly slept at all we exspect [expect] marching orders every minute wee are held in readiness a general inspection in our camp this evening of our camp of guns, amunition [ammunition] Knapsacks and our Balloon up.

July, 1862

Tues. July 1: A Beautiful clear morning Still a fighting I am on camp gard today varous [various] Roomers [rumors] in camp from the battle field the fight is more desperate than yestady if possible,but more distant it was kept up until 10 oclock P.M. Died tonight about 10 oclock John Leftwich & J.D. Mays[18].

Wed. July 2: hard rain commenced at day light rained very hard until the middle of the evening very cool & clost clowdy orderly Clark & Private Mills returned Sergent Stone left camp on a discarge [discharge] the 6 or 7 days long fighting have closed at last wee have run the Yankees Entirely out of the neighbourhood [neighborhood] of Richmond. Wise’s Brig. has Returned.

Thurs. July 3: The morning opens very clowdy & cold dug the graves and buried [buried] in plane [plain] Boxes in the honors of war 16 men with their guns placing me at the head of the line as one of the 16 and wee marched clost behind the corps at reverse armes when reaching the graves wee formed a line long side the 2 graves as they wore [were] lowerd [lowered] down wee come to a present armes and after they wor [were] let down and covered with some punchin[19] [puncheon] and some brush and ready for the durt [dirt] then rest on armes put the muzzle on the left toe left hand on the but [butt] of the gun right hand holt [held] the small of the stock the preacher read sung and prayed a little then wee fired 3 rounds and returned Buried near Chafin’s gate still carrying our woonded [wounded] and Yanky [Yankee] prisoners from Jenerals down to privates a great quantity commersary [commissary] clothes cannon & small armes & amunition horses mules and wagons with losses unnone [unknown] yet one of Capt. Bagby’s men fel [fell] from a tree and broak his left Thigh and arm whilst on pickett.

Fri. July 4: A clear still & beautiful morning have a bad caughf [cough] & the doctors perscribed [prescribed] mederson [medicine] for me for the first time report ses [says] that Jackson is still in persuit [pursuit] of the Yankees yet & still sending prisoners but they are out of hearing things verry [very] still hardly the sound of a gun to be hern [heard] our little steem [steamer] Teaser went down the river with a balloon making observations and found but one Yankey [Yankee] boat this side of Old Point thare is 138 Yankey offerciers [officers] in Richmond all prisoners 5 of them Jenerals 4,300 privates in the last 10 days today’s paper responsible.

Sat. July 5: Weather clear & warm things quiet reguler [regular] drilling & camp duties as usual   William Witt[20] in Capt. A. Jurdins [Jordan’s] Company died and was sent home  nothing today worth note.

Sun. July 6: Clear & intensely hot verry still morning things quiet nothing worth note.

Mon. July 7: Fine weather the most of our Company went on picket this morning the hotest [hottest] day I have felt this year nothing of note all quiet.

Tues. July 8: A clear hot morning Jas [James] Laughlin came down me & his sone [son] met him at drury Bluff looked around at the beautiful iron battery crosed [crossed] the river at the blockade which they was at work on I toated [toted] a box over to amp for Jack Sled Battalion drill this evening things still nothing exciting.

Wed. July 9: Clear & hot 2 men died in our Regt. and Burried here things quiet a Round to day preaching at dusk.

Thurs. July 10: Hot & dry order to move but did not move Drawd [Drew] 4 gal. of whiskey for our company B. Watson & S. Preston went home this morning on a sick furlow [furlough] carried by Jas. Hutson things still and quiet.

Fri. July 11: Clost clowdy & a raining something new plowing corn the first I H.[have] seen since I have bin in camp Mr. Laughlin started home 4 oclock P.M. & still a raining & prospect good.

Sat. July 12: Clear and warm they sent for J.D. Mays’ remains but could not move him

Sun. July 13: fine weather yeller Janders in camp moved 1½ miles below within ¾ of a mile of the river good water a plenty wee camped in a field rite in the sun   I heard from Jack Sled[21] at the Chimborazo[22] hospitle [hospital] last orders no furlows granted.

Mon. July 14: Clear building arbers [arbors] a varrity [variety] Milk rice unions [onions] & molasses for dinner buildings arbers things still in camp.

Tues. July 15: A beautiful morning diging [digging] rifle pits a detail of 50 men from a Regt. for the fatigue Duty & I for one hat [hate] work a desperate thunder storm very high winds & rain rumerd in camp that all of old Burnsides’ Fleet is advancing up Jamesses [James] River slowly with land fourses [forces] on each side sent all the [sick][23] off to the hospital.

Wed. July 16: A clear and pleasant morning still carring [carrying] the fatigue work driling & a heavy thunder storm late in the evening things quiet not much excitement in camp rained most all night.

Thurs. July 17: Little clowdy & pleasant and the little birds chirping & singing as tho tha [they] wished for a clear day verry hot the 46[th] Va. Regt. moved clost to us another verry heavy thunder cloud late in the evening a tremendous rain but no so much wind as before rained most all night.
Fri. July 18: A little clowdy & pleasant raining more or less all day got a man in the gard house thare was a Tennessee Regt. sent down here to help to fority detailed for 3 days 7 cannons reports heard down the river no perticulars [particulars].[24] Rec’d of Capt. L.A. Sale 34.00 2 months wages up to the 1 day of July.

Sat. July 19: Clowdy & cool I made & Baked some fried pies for dinner Mister George Goode come down to day no rain to day not mutch excitemient [excitement] in camp all quiet.

Sun. July 20: Clear & hot Mr. Goode leaves camp this morning & and Adolfus Goode[25] went over to the 2[nd] Va. heavy artilery [artillery] & spent the day with Kit Clowdis[26] & Tom & Sidney Goode[27] and seen great many camps clost to us thare is surposed to be between 75-10000 [7,500-10,000] solgers [soldiers] within 8 or 10 miles of Richmond wee are fortifying all the time with 4 of 5 hundred hands 18 hundred Cavelry [cavalry] past [passed] down on Chickahomany [Chickahominy] on a scurmish [skirmish] and pickett.

Mon. July 21: Clear & pleasant Jas. Eubank of this Co. died at the hospittle [hospital] last night a rainy evening not much excitement.

Tues. July 22: Cloudy & pleasant Buried Mr. Jas. Eubank[28] this morning in the honors of war an escort of 8 armed men under my charge attended the burrial with firing near Chafin’s gate 4 men sent to the Liberty hospittle[29] W.H. Fizer carried them poleacing [policing] streets & tents Brigade drill.

Tues. July 23: a little clowdy & pleasant I was sent in charge of 12 men to gard Mr. Baler’s primercies [premises] on the river one mile below camp I taken diner with him.

Wed. July 24: Clowdy & warm Rec’d a nice bucket of Buttermilk for our breakfast before wee was Relieved at 8 oclock wee Returned to camp Gen. Wises Brigade is signed to long street divission [assigned to Longstreet’s division] nothing fresh.

Fri. July 25: a beautiful morning a little picket skirmish hot all quiet to day.

Sat. July 26: Clear & warm a plenty of Beef for the last few days a thunder cloud in the evening hard Rain not much Excitement in camp to day.

Sun. July 27: Clear & hot on gard to day inspection of arms this morning Kit Clowdis come to camp today to see us 2 South Carolina Regts moved in close to us Bought some corn meal.

Mon. July 28: Clear & warm A.P. Hills divission has gone to the vally [valley][30] of Virginia to reinfoce [reinforce] Jackson drawing Beef. I.N. Clark went home on a sick fourlow [furlough] some excitement in camp about movements of our fources.

Tues. July 29: a plesant [pleasant] morning I went to Chafins [Chaffin’s] bluff nice situation 3 iron clad Batterys [batteries] thare a bout 13 guns in all they was a pratising [practicing] shooting 2 Regt. of light artilery come down to our drill ground to practis [practice] fired several rounds a piece I seen Jim Organ.

Wed. July 30: Clowdy & plesant Jim taken breakfast with us a heap sick in our company at 7 A.M. rain at 10 A.M. clear wee only muster 40 men Wm. [William] Fizer Returned to camp all quiet.

Thurs. July 31: Clowdy at 8 A.M. Rain all day a bout 1 oclock in the night heavy cannonading was distinctly hearn [heard] in our camp from down the river serposed [supposed] to be the Yanky [Yankee] gun boats   no perticulars.

August, 1862

Fri. Aug. 1, 1862: Clost clowdy detailed for gard again the 50[th] & 51[st] Georgia regt. moved clost to us the firing last night was our men surprising the Yanky camp they returned a few shots put out their lights and ran off  we don’t no [know] what damage they Rec’d our los [loss] was 1 kild [killed] 6 wounded by an axcident [accident] of one of their one [own] guns  the farmers clost here have bin ordered to get their wheat up and move their property & families looking for a Big fight here.

Sat. Aug. 2: Clear & plesant things all quiet today Brigade drill this evening.

Sun. Aug. 3: Cloudy & pleasant & general inspection sent 2 more men to the hospittle I went with them and seen the sick went to Chafins [Chaffin’s] Bluff Boath Baterys 3 or 4 hundred yas. [yards] apart 5 guns at each place some heavy firing down the river 12 or 15 miles.

Mon. Aug. 4: Clowdy & plesant on gard a gain to day 2 men in the gard house for inslence [insolence] to their offersers all quiet in camp.

Tues. Aug. 5: Clear & plesant all of our sergents sick But my self I have to act orderly after coming off gard Brigade drill at 5 P.M.  uncommon hot.

Wed. Aug. 6: Clear I struck a drink of whiskey this morning nothing of mutch intrust [much interest] tis reported that the gunboats is coming up the River wee Exchanged 4 thousand Prisoners the exchange was made on Akins farm 5 or 6 miles below here.

Thurs. Aug. 7: Clear all of Capt. Prestons Company is in the guard house for refusing to serve under him any longer the [they] all with drawn their names but 2 & they are still in the gard house the others let out.

Fri. Aug. 8: Clear & hot Lutenant [Lieutenant] Fellers Returned and has left the Company and is quartermaster for the Regt. his place is to be filled 2 men returned from the Hospittle nothing new in camp all quiet.

Sat. Aug. 9: Clear & hot Sergt. Barber Returned to duty this morning drawed some whiskey drawing beef and not salt a nofe [enough] to keep it from spoiling all quiet.

Sun. Aug. 10: Clear and verry hot Some of Longstreet Divission marched to day to Reinfource Jackson at the vally of Va. there [was] preaching in our camp this evening and also hard wind with rain  several rumers.

Mon. Aug. 11: Clear and plesant Jackson & Pope is fighting in the valley of Virginia.

Tues. Aug. 12: Clear & hot it is Reported that Jackson has got the enemy a falling Back but no pertickulars given high wind with rain this evening 150 Yanky offersers past our camp this evening an exchange among them 3 generals a cool plesant night.

Wed. Aug. 13: Clear & cool morning some rumers about our having to go down to the river but nothing sertin [certain] Capt. A. Jordan Returned to camp 12 or 15 conscripts the most of them joined his Co.

Thurs. Aug. 14: Cleare & a good deal of moving a bout from a round here some talk of our moveing [moving].

Fri. Aug. 15: Clowdy & cool taken all our Rifles away from us and give us muskets elected 3 Leut. to day Corpl. Woolfolk[31] elected by a large majority.

Sat. Aug. 16: Clowdy & cool nothing new in camp a good deal of traiding [trading] around camp with the the Negroes on Saturday evenings.

Sun. Aug. 17: Clear & cool verry cool nights for this time of year sudenly [suddenly] too H.C. Richardson died Saturday night & Burried to day at Chafins gate wee have 4 men burried at that place Clay was one of our mess mates and had bin all of the time & a good Boy and 2 men that was sent home some time a go died within the last few days John Brown and Albert Nance[32].

Mon. Aug. 18: Clear & cool ordered to cook 2 days rashions [rations] and be ready at short notice the day pased of [off] quiet all here yet.

Tues. Aug. 19: Cool & dry yet no orders this morning all the men has left a round here except our Brigade and the men that work the Batterys market wagons every day.

Wed. Aug. 20: Clear & dry nothing of importance to day they are planting more peicies [pieces] on the river.

Thurs. Aug. 21: Clowdy with a little rain cleared off and a thunder cloud in the evening rain in the night the day pased off quiet They put several in the gard house for pulling green corn.

Fri. Aug. 22: Clowdy and raining a fine rain stopt [stopped] at 10 oclock A.M. still fortfying [fortifying] on the river here all quiet to day.

Sat. Aug. 23: A little clowdy & warm rain in the evening and the best part of the night me and Billie paid 1 dollar a piece for a small chickens 12 ½ cts. [cents] a doz. for irish potatoes 15 cts. a qurt. for Butter milk and 25 cts. for sweet milk and 10 cts. each for tomatoes.

Sun. Aug. 24: Cloudy & cool with rain in the morning clost clowdy and no rain at 10 A.M. – nothing of importance to day.

Mon. Aug. 25: a little clowdy & cool sent 2 armed men to Richmond after W. Atkerson[33] [Adkinson] that left camp without a pass and is in prison in Richmond  Brout [brought] him in at sundown and put him in the gard house for Trial.

Tue. Aug. 26: Clear & cool fogy [foggy] mornings & nights and hot days. Put Drury in the gard house for treading on a mans heels on drill all quiet to day still planting heavy piecies & morters [mortars].

Wed. Aug. 27: Clowdy & warm reported that Jackson cut old Pope all to piecies got his servant sword & over coat and papers als [also] [34] Reported that the gun Boats was coming up the river But not sertain.

Thurs. Aug. 28: Clost clowdy Col. Daughtery appointed 4 Corpl. [Corporals] the day pased off calm sed [said] to be falce [false] about the gun Boats being in the river.

Fri. Aug. 29: Clear & plesant still working on fortiforcation [fortifications] the papers states all men under 18 years old will be sent home and no more to come and service & various other rumers all quiet in camp.

Sat. Aug. 30: Clowdy & cool Billie reported for duty this morning 2 Yankys passed here last night and was taken up at Marian Hill & sent to Richmond Report ses [says] Jackson was at Manasses [Manassas] Junct. [Junction] & nothing before him to fight day passed quiet.

Sun. Aug. 31: a very hard rain last night and this morning Raining up to 12 oclock cleared off verry warm all quiet.

September, 1862

Mon. Sept. 1: Clowdy & warm Stuart makes another Break out among the enemy with success nothing of importance through the day a very heavy storm wind & rain at dark and night.

Tues. Sept. 2: Clear & cool orders for our Regt. to move this Evening at 2 oclock the Regiment left marched acrows [across] the country a bout 5 miles to throw up fortifycation left all the sick here which noombers [numbers] 25 3 well men left to cook for them I being out of a spell of sickness and is nocking a bout a right smart the sick was left in my charge Billie went.

Wed. Sept. 3: Clear & verry cool I have a verry bad headache last night & this morning Uncle Jim & H. Frizer got here this evening at 1 oclock the [they] stayed all night with me and Brought us a Box of vegetables and __[35]

Thurs. Sept. 4: Clear & cool Uncle Jim went down to see Billie this morning and Returned this evening and stayed all night with me again no gard around our camp except at the gard house over the prisoners.

Fri. Sept. 5: Clear plesant I stil [still] feel verry Bad with high fevers on me Uncle Jim went down to see Billie a gain this morning I look for him Back this evening and Billie sent our box to me at the old camp Uncle Jim & Billie come up late in the evening and I opend [opened] the Box all the Bread stuffs pies cakes was spoilt Eggs most all Broak they injoyed [enjoyed] them seles [themselves] with a good many of the Company over thre [there] and it was verry late before went sleep[36] I was right sick It cheared [cheered] me to see them enjoy them seles.

Sat. Sept. 6: Clear & plesant mor – [morning] Billie packing things in his knapsack whilst Uncle Jim was waiting on me with my Tea and cracker and then got their Breakfast and Billie had to leave for the Regt. and Uncle Jim mucked a Round and enjoyed him self the bes [best] he could and dunall [done all] he could for me also he started home in the evening reports of victerry [victory] for us.

Sun. Sept. 7: Clear and Butiful [beautiful] day I felt a little better things was all quiet no Excitement.

Mon. Sept. 8: Clear weather I still feel better some ses that our Regt. would move tomorrow But it was all false.

Tues. Sept. 9: It Rained most all day & night the Regt. came in under a heavy[37] until they put up they [their] tents.

Wed. Sept. 10: Clowdy & raining of [off] & on all[38] and my health still improving thare was another prospect clost of Rain.

Thurs. Sept. 11: Rained all day & all night the men could hardly cook meals the [they] started in the rain & when they got to camp they had no dry clothes the [they] then let the [them] dry on me.

Fri. Sept. 12: Little this But a nice sunshine & the ground dried of [off] verry fast to I hope the weather will continoo [continue].

Sat. Sept. 13: I still feel verry Bad wee moved our camp to day about 100 yds. from the same place.

Sun. Sept. 14: Pretty fine weather I was no better they sent me to the Hospittle and sent Billie to wait on me my Room is verry comfortable & good Doct.

Mon. Sept. 15: Things passed of [off] easy all the sick is improving in our house the houses Amen.

Tues. Sept. 16: I believe that wee are all improving wee get Tea & Bread & Butter for breakfast chicken soop [soup] & Bread for dinner super [supper] the same as Breakfast I get a few peaches.

Wed. Sept. 17: a little milk & mush some times when tho Billie has to make it for me I am still improving.

Thurs. Sept. 18: a Beautiful day & I believe all the sick in this house is improving a little al so [also] in the other Rooms also.

Fri. Sept. 19: Beautiful day and we are still improving most all able to walk work a bout no chicken to day.

Sat. Sept. 20: I am still improving Billie is waiting on me & he is a good nurs [nurse] our Regt. left yestady and al so all General Wises command all garn [gone] to Williamsburg whare they exspect some fighting.

Sun. Sept. 21: I am improveing [improving] a little I have to By [buy] most every that that I Eat since I have bin here.

Mon. Sept. 22: a Butiful [beautiful] morning and I am improveing Billie went down camp this morning. Brought me some irish potatoes & one letter from home & he one from Uncle Jim.

Tues. Sept. 23: nice weather all we sick are improveing some Dr. Murry [Murray] is the finest man I ever saw he comes to see us 2 a day.

Wed. Sept. 24: nice morning all improveing evening clowdy look like rain but no rain tolerable cool.

Thurs. Sept. 25: a nice cool day I think I am still improving but verry slow old tuff [tough] Beef for dinner to day.

Fri. Sept. 26: nice plesant weather 1 man died here last night makes 3 that has died since I bin here I think I am sill [still] improveing Report ses our Regt. is coming to camp.

Sat. Sept. 27: a beautiful morning I seen Charly [Charlie] Andrews this morning & cosen [cousin] Susan Lee is in Richmond I think I am improving sloly [slowly].

Sun. Sept. 28: a nice warm day every thing is mity [mighty] still about here for Sunday I think all of the sick around the hospitle is improveing slowly.

Mon. Sept. 29: a beautiful day I think I am improveing slowly I can walk a bout the house and a little out dowers [outdoors] but verry little.

Tues. Sept 30: a beautiful warm morning hard living here I think all of the sick is improving but verry slow thare was 2 men died at this hospittle one was a Yankey.

October, 1862

Wed. Oct. 1, 1862: Beautiful weather nothing fresh around here the most of the sick is improveing.

Thurs. Oct. 2: A nice warm day no news Billie is with me yet he mos [most] of us are mending but verry slow Dr. Merry [Murray] has bin sick for a weak [week] a fine man.

Fri. Oct. 3: a beautifull warm morning 1 man died here last night this hospittle [hospital] is on Taylor’s farm and the overseer commenced sowing wheat he started 2 harrows and a drill after them it looks like home.

Sat. Oct. 4: nice warm weather times dull our diet is verry ruff [rough] coffee & Bread for Breakfast no chicken now meat and corn Bread for dinner tea & tuff Biscuit for supper.

Sun. Oct. 5: a cool morning but a warm day Mr. Goode & Mr. Adams[39] called to see me they were going down to the Regt. 1 man died here today Bob Roberts[40].

Mon. Oct. 6: nice weather warm days and cool nights I am not improveing any at this time on the Account of my Bowells [bowels] running.

Tues. Oct. 7: a nice plesant morning my Bowells out of order wee ar [are] sororter [sort of] looking for a board to meet here to morrow for the purpous [purpose] giving fourlowes [furloughs] & transfers & discharges.

Wed. Oct. 8: nice weather no news thimes [time] is verry dull I feell [feel] about the same no board yet the prospect is dull for fourlowes & transfurs [transfers] & Discharges.

Thurs. Oct. 9: hot & dry weather & Bin so for a long tim [time] the Board met to day down at the 46[th] Regt. they are exspected here evry [every] day I fee [feel] a little esier [easier] to day nothing interresting around here.

Fri. Oct. 10: Clowdy & a Raining this morning Mr. Cook started home on a Furlough this morning before breakfast cleared & was verry hot in the evening.

Sat. Oct. 11: cold winds verry hard Rain all day untill late in the evening leaves a very cold wind & clowdy I believe I am a little better.

Mon. Oct. 12[13][41]: cold & a raining hard all day cold under 3 blankets I slept under 3 blankets Bowells still running.

Tues. Oct. 13[14]: cold & clost clowdy all day and night & Raining most of the timee [time] men all clostly [closely] housed up rained most all night with wind.

Wed. [hursday] Oct. 14[15]: the weather has turned a little warmer clost clowdy this morning with no rain partly clear at 12 oclock the Board met here to day and gave me a 40 days fourlough & a good many others.

Thurs. Oct. 15[16]: Mostly clear with wind no Rain Nothing of importance a round here. I Rec’d my 2 months wages up to the Sept. 1 I am improving verry slow.

Thurs. Oct. 16[42]: a beautifull day 1 man died here to day our fourlough come to hand this evening it looks like Rain.

Fri. Oct. 17: a nice warm day and cold nights I started home this morning on a 40 day Fourlough and 14 others left the same hospittle to day started from Richmond at 6 P.M. I was on the road all night landed in Lynchburg at 10 next morning the train run off the tracks.

Sat. Oct. 18: a nice warm day came to New London this evening on a wagon Staid at cosen Beteies [Betty’s].

Sun. Oct. 19: a pretty day I got hom [home] this evening horseback.[43]

December, 1862

Dec. 23: Left home horse Back to the watering Branch walked in town taken the train at 5 P.M. landed in Richmond at 3 A.M. taken steem Boat [steamboat] at 10 A.M. Reached Drury Bluff & walked over to Camp Randolph to my Co. in winter quarters spent night.

Dec. 24: Went to the horse pittle [hospital] & Reported Returned to camp for duty.

Dec. 25: Christmas morning got several drinks a good Breakfast of Pork Beef sausage Bread & Butter no work But camp gard some of Regt. got drunk several fights no harm Done.

Dec. 26: A prety [pretty] day verry dull day a good many went to Malvin hill 10 miles below here after lead to Exchange for Powder to send home.

Dec. 27: rainy day nothing new in camp to day Billie Laughlin[44] come to camp & Brought me some sausage.

Dec. 28: Detailed to Report to head Quarters sent with 3 me [men] to a grainory [granary] on Chafins farm slep [slept] on some Raw cow skins & parch corn for super [supper].

Dec. 29: Clear Releaved at 9 A.M. this morning they commenced afresh on the Breast works this morning on the river.

Dec. 30: Clowdy and tolerble [tolerably] warm for the season roal [roll] call last night at 11 oclock  to see who they could catch absent.

Dec. 31: Cold & clowdy all day Jeneral inspection of Arms & munitions none of the sentinals [sentinels] are a loud [allowed] to leave the gard house during 24 hours Detail.

January, 1863

Jan. 1: Times dull in camp for a new year clear cold morning some rumers [rumors] a bout peace.

Jan. 2: Clear & cold Detales [details] heavy for gard & work nothing new to day.

Jan. 3: a little clowdy no rain clear in the evening a great Victory in Town.

Jan. 4: Sunday morning clear clodes [clouds] up after sun rise inspection as usual Roal call at 11 oclock last night.

Jan. 5: a Beautiful clear warm morning I am on camp gard I have a verry sore arme from Vaxination[45] [vaccination].

Jan. 6: Clear & cold come off gard this morning various rumers in camp about peace but not confirmed.

Jan. 7: Verry cold and windy on police to day reported that the 46[th] Regt. are ordered to Richmond for city gard wee signed pay Roal.

Jan. 8: Cold & clowdy Beef verry poor Drill 2 a day Rec’d off to day.

Jan. 9: Clost clowdy & a snowing stop snowing 1 or 2 inches deep Mr. George Goode come to camp.

Jan. 10: Clost clowdy Goode leaves this morning rain all the evening and most all night and roal call.

Jan. 11: Clear & plesant inspection Sunday evening Dress parade all Quiet.

Jan. 12: Clear & plesant nothing new chickens $1.00 a piece eggs $1.00 a doz.

Jan. 13: Clowdy & cool Chees [Cheese] $2.00 per pound Butter $1.75 and $2.00 other things in proportion nothing new to day.

Jan. 14: Clowdy at day light clear at noon on gard at Head quarters slept 2 hours cloudy before day and mutch [much] like rain wind verry high.

Jan. 15: Clowdy verty high winds off at 9 A.M met 4 prisoners going to head quarters 2 white men & 2 Negroes put a ball & chain on 1 of the Negroes the Balance in the gard house.

Jan. 16: Clowdy windy and a raining verry cold no fresh news afloat.

Jan. 17: Clear & cold 2 men returned to camp went out after meal this evening all quiet in camp.

Jan. 18: Sunday clear & cold inspection preaching in camp dress parade. [All quiet.][46]

Jan. 19: a little clowdy & verry cold nights various rumers in camp none affirmed.

Jan. 20: Clowdy with a cool brease [breeze] look like snow about night it commenced raining and rained all night.

Jan. 21: Clost clowdy and raining slightly all day wee had a small mess of Bacon & peas for dinner to day.

Jan. 22: Clost clowdy with a heavy mist Verry windy the leanest Beef I ever serve[d].

Jan. 23: Clowdy & damp thretning [threatening] rain on camp gard to day 6 prisoners in the gard house no rain slept on a stool an hour all quiet in camp.

Jan. 24: Still clowdy but warm off gard at 9 A.M. no work party[47] today.

Jan. 25: Clear & warm the usual old transactions as usual.

Jan. 26: Clowdy & warm no rain.

Jan. 27: Clowdy with a little rain roal call at 12 oclock in the day drill 2 a day rained most all night.

Jan. 28: at 7 oclock Roal call clost cloudy and snowing verry hard it continued all day as clost as I ever saw it had to cut and toot [tote] wood Ples. Scott Returned to day to the Co.

Jan. 29: Some wind clowds at sun rise but clear in a few hours wind wee have stoped drawing Beef on the account of it being so poor[48] nothing but flower [flour] the sorriest kind.

Jan. 30: Clear with slight winds on detail at Head quarters for fatigue in charge of 12 men and 2 wagons.

Jan. 31: Clear & plesant detailed a gain for head quarters but got off all quiet.

Feb. 1.5[49]: Clear and plesant inspection as usual a long walk on the river orders on dress paraid [parade] to give 14 days Fourlough to 25 present for Duty.

Feb. 2: Clear and pleasant on detail for Head quarters with 10 men repairing yard fence & garden __ faverable [favorable] news in the papers things quiet in camp.

Feb. 3: Clost clowdy and a snowing verry hard detailed for head quarters in the snow with the same party to get 3 loads of oak wood for the party stoped snowing at 12 oclock windy.

Feb. 4: Clear & cold on detail at Head quarters Seargt. [Sergeant] Clark on a 30 days fourlough as a recruting [recruiting] offerser [officer].

Feb. 5: Snowing very hard until 10 oclock then rain cold with winds all the evening and night the papers speaks of peace.

Feb. 6: Cloudy & a raining rained all day General Wise returned to his head quarters a report of guns & ammunitions ordenance [ordnance].

Feb. 7: Clear cold Big frost various rumers in the papers several victories on our side all quiet in camp.

Feb. 8-9[50]: Clear and plesant 3 men fourloughed home for 15 days on gard at Head Quarters taken Sergt. Wallace’s place for him to start home Capt. Price ordered me to take one of the curiers [couriers] to the gard house & gave his horse in my charge.

Feb. 10: Relief of gard prisoner & horse in in charg[e] of them 36 Yankies [Yankees] taken below hear [here] 1 Capt. 2 Liut. [Lieutenant] among them they belong to the 5th Penesilvania [Pennsylvania] Cavl [Cavalry] taken to wise [General Wise’s] Head Quarters then sent to Richmond By the 59[th] VA Regt.

Feb. 11: Clowdy with rain off and on all day drawed a little Bacon ¼ of a pound to a man per day all quiet in camp.

Feb. 12: Clear & windy cool nothing new I got a pass to the Battlefield.

Feb. 13: Clear & cold started Me H. Fizer & M. Foster 2 hours before day to the 7 Pines Battlefield[51] neither knew the way wee folered [followed] the breastworks all the way it is a verry low swampy Country some places they could not run the works a cross [across] & wee got in one of them swamps before day whare the timber was cut cross and file every way and wee was in the mud & water a[n] hour before we could get a cross got to 7 Pines looked a round seen a great distruction [destruction] of men & horses and army Equipments & 6 miles farther a cross the Chickahominy swamp on the Bridge that McClealan [McClellan] made to bring his fources across on and wee went to the Battle field at Ganes [Gaines] Mill and all over the fighting ground & got dinner at Mr. McGhees and little began thare at Stuarts wee got some whiskey see a great distruction thare mens skull & jaw bones hanging on the bushes and graves toarn [torn] up the boans [bones] scattered a bout me plowing up the __ Crossed Back on this side the river staid all night.

Feb. 14: Clear Big frost come by the 7 Pines several houses burnt thare got back to camp By 12 oclock roal call hungry & tired roat [wrote] a letter in the evening all quiet a bout camp.

Feb. 15: Clowdy and showery all day usual Sunday duty a special despatch [dispatch] came in camp stating 4 of the NorthWestern states has seceaded [seceded] from the U.S. and wantes [wants] peace at all hasards [hazards].[52]

Feb. 16: Clear & pleasant the todays paper affirmes [affirms] the yestady’s [yesterday’s] report men in high spirits about peace Fourloughs.

Feb. 17: Rain clost all day on gard at Head Quarters 6 prisoners in the gard house thare H. Wagner & 5 others 4 of which is Bricked[53] one hour in each day & fed on Bread & water rain all night.

Feb. 18: Clost clowdy Releaved [Relieved] at 9 A.M. rain clost from noon til night wild sallet[54] for dinner nothing fresh in the camp today.

Feb. 19: Clost clowdy and raining all day drawing ¼ of a pound of Bacon per day and some shugar [sugar] and rice report ses [says] the enemy is landing fources below here at Sufacks [Suffolk] but nothing sertin [certain].

Feb. 20: Clear with light wind all day nothing new in camp to day.

Sat. 21: Clear & pleasant me & 2 others went on the river at drurys Bluff after sallet & seen the iron clad laying at anchor a bove the Blockade Returned to camp found Jas. Laughlin L. Lee & John Jones thare all quiet left the same day.

Sun. 22:  Commenced snowing in the night snowed all day snow 8 inches deep 3 divisions from Fredericksburg camped on the Petersburg road oposite [opposite] the Bluff Laughlin & Jones left this morning Bad toating [toting] wood.

Mon. 23: Clear & cold on camp gard 13 prisoners 2 turned out this evening slep [slept] all night.

Tues. 24: Clear & pleasant Baught [Bought] a double case silver watch for $50.00 cash Relieved from gard at 8 A.M. me & J. Sled[d] went Rabbit hunting this evening catched [caught] nothing.

Wed. 25: Clear plesant one of our fourlough men got Back to day snow balling.

Thurs. 26: Clowdy little rain the other 2 fourloughed men got Back Bacon rice and light Bread.

Fri. 27: a little clowdy Little rain last night very warm to day & mudy [muddy] Do [due] for dinner 2 Conscrips [conscripts] come to our Co. from Franklin.

Sat. 28: Cloudy with some rain Jeneral [General] inspection very mudy.

March, 1863

Sun. 1: Clowdy no inspection this morning clear at noon Leut. Woolfolk started home on a 7 day’s fourlough no Dress parade this evening nothing new.

Mon. 2: Clear plesant looking for fourloughs all through the Regt. all quiet.

Tues. 3: Clear little cool Cor. Gibbs Lt. Foster & J. Hardy started home on 7 days I was working on the pay roal to day.

Wed. 4: Clowdy cool a nice pot of Bacon & sallet for dinner A.C. Daugherty M. Foster & J. Fisher started home on 7 days fourlough all quiet in camp.

Thurs. 5: Clear & cool on gard at Head Quarters 9 prisoners in the gard house & they had to work in the garden Slep [Slept] half the night.

Fri. 6: Clowdy & cold went in the garden ½ past 7 A.M. Relieved ½ past 8 then my cook day one non-com offercer [Non-commissioned officer] from each company to drill the conscripts in each co.

Sat. 7: Clowdy & cold drawing close [clothes] in the regt. rany [rainy] evening Jen-poleasing [general policing] drawing ¼ of a pound of Bacon per day shugar the same flower one pound.

Sun. 8: Clowdy & raining no inspections wind H. A. Wise Jr.[55] preaches in our chapel to day at 11 A.M. the rain stoped at 8 A.M dressprade [dress parade] Eubank taken sick suddenly.

Mon. 9: Clear & plesant Seargt. Boswell drilling the conscripts dressprade this evening orders sed [said] that wee should drill 2 a day & dressprade each evening.

Tues. 10: Clost clowdy & hailing & rainning [raining] Leut. Sergt. Clark Privat [Private] Kenedy & Lowery come in this morning Billie Laughlin & Ballow left this morning on a sick fourlough for 30 days.

Wed. 11: Clowdy and rain clear at noon on H. Quar. gard 10 prisoners in the gard house Wagerner and too [two] others was relieved this evening one man detailed out of each Co. tend the general garden H. Fizer from our Co. Corp. Gibbs & H. Foster come in.

Thurs. 12: Clear & cold slept one hour last night 2 more prisoners sent off Relieved at 9 A.M. Co. drill 2 a day dressprade each evening M. Foster come in J. Hardy & Corp. Daugherty come in.

Fri. 13: Clear & cold 8 furloughs come in for our Co. nice Bacon flower and shugar.

Sat. 14: Clear & cold Leut. Bird[,] J. Haskins J. Hudson A. Kenerday [Kenedy] G. Jones G. Hogers [Hodges] J. Huddleston E. Harris started home on a 7 days furlough.

Sun. 15: Cold clowdy inspection this morning dressprade at ½ P. 5 P.M. [5:30] all quiet.

Mon. 16: Cold & clowdy on head Quart. gard 5 prisoners the old Negro left his master came after him slept ½ the night all Quiet in camp.

Tues. 17: Clear Big frost Relieved 8 ½ A.M. drill in the evening dressprade also.

Wed. 18: Clear & plesant fighting on the raprahanock [Rappahannock] nothing fresh a round camp.

Thurs. 19: Clost clowdy snowing slightly off and on snow near all night severa [Several] in. [inches] deep.

Fri. 20: Snowing at full spead [speed] at light snowed all day the snow is 15 inch deep whare it did not melt as it fell.

Sat. 21: Clear & plesant general though on gard at H Quarter 5 prisoners in gard house slep [Slept] several hours need.

Sun. 22: Clear snow melting most all off Relieved 8 ½ A.M. cloudy & cool at eve.

Mon. 23: Clear all quiet in camp verry muddy.

Tues. 24: Clowdy with some Rain one man come in J. Hudson Rec’d a Box from home.

Wed. 25: Clear & warm Leut. Bird & 6 more come in this morning all quiet in camp.

Thurs. 26: Clear & plesant 6 men started home on 7 days furlough R. Lile [Lyle] A. Mitchell P. Overstreet S. Overstreet H. Overstreet B. Kesler & and D. Mcghee [McGhee] on detail home the 17[th].[56]

Fri. 27: Clear & plesant H. Fizer come in corn Bread & potatoes for dinner.

Sat. 28: Cloudy with rain/wind[57] all quiet in camp on camp gard 5 prisoners in gard house rained all day slep 2 hours at night.

Sun. 29: Clear & cold windy inspection gard relieved at 9 A.M.

Mon. 30: Clear & plesant on poliece [police] general camp inspection to day all quiet.

Tues. 31: Clowdy and rain all last night & to day until 12 oclock to day verry damp & wett.

April, 1863

Wed. 1: Clear & cold a nice pot of Beanes [beans] for dinner on a regler [regular] detail for wood Chopping for the Regt.

Thurs. 2: Clear & plesant thare was a bread riot in Richmond By the femails [females] of the place.[58]

Fri. 3: Clowdy & windy & cold B. Kesler come in from home General Brig. revue [general brigade review] By Gen. Elsy[59] [Elzey]

Sat. 4: Clowdy & cold winds chopping wood snow & Rain all night verry cold J. Hardy went home on a 7 days furlough.

Sun. 5: rain & snow Toms and H. Overstreet Bob Lile [Lyle] A. Mitchell came in S. [sick] Overstreet sick home.[60]

Mon. 6: Holyday[61] cold windy all quiet.

Tues. 7: Clear & plesant I went to Richmond an[d] asses [assess] whiskey 50 & 75 cts. [cents] per drink.

Wed. 8: Clear & plesant our Regt. under marching orders & starts at 8 A.M one days rasions [rations] cooked and 4 days in the wagons started down the river marched hard all day struck camp at 5 P.M. marched 20 miles laid on the ground feet all Blistered on our way to Wm. Burg [Williamsburg].

Thurs. 9: Clear & frost marched at 7 A.M. Marched hard all day crosed the Chickahomany [Chickahominy] river at noon in wagons all Wises [Wise’s] Brigade 26 miles this side of Wm. Burg struck camp at 7 to night now for cooking went to sleep at 12 on the ground.

Fri. 10: Clear & pleasant started this morning at 8 I am on gard near wagon gard marched within 7 miles of Wm. Burg. struck camp give out 2 days rassions [rations] to be cooked emediately [immediately] roads Bad wagons stalling mens feet Blistered I set on gard until 10 oclock sleped 2 hours marched at 2 oclock gard Broak [broke] up wee got in sight Wm. Burg at day light[62]

Sat. 11: then our Regt. formed a line of Battle and went in to the town at duble [double] quick the picket pased [paseed] a few shots the Yankies fell back a mile or 2 to thair [their] Batterys [Batteries] wee stoped and they Began to shel [shell] us the shot & shell fell all around us then our artilery opened on thair Battery and had clost fire for an hour or too [two] they killed 5 of the horses & woonded 3 men dont no [know] what harm wee did them wee then fell Back this side of town a mile to draw them out of the fourts [forts] the 59[th] Regt. got in their rear then wee started Back to help them out they cut thair way through take and Brought a long [along] 20 prisoners 10 or 15 horses they taken a camp distroid [destroyed] every thing they could killed a good many horses Paroled a good many of prisoner that was sick wee met them in the town then wee all fell back 3 miles and camped layed out with out any Bedding Bagage wagons caught up late in the night the Yankies have Reinfosed [reinforced] largely.

Sun. 12: Clear & plesant still in camp I dont no [know] what wee will do Preaching in camp at 10 A.M. strong Picket duty orders to be ready to march at a minutes warning staid here all night a little rain.

Mon. 13: Clowdy & warm halling [Hauling] in forage moving sitersens [citizens] & plunder out of the sity [city] a good many negroes found hid [hiding] a bout town Brought them out hawling [hollering] from the sity all day sent the prisoners 12 or 18 to the rear exspected [expected] to be attackted [attacked] this evening the out side pickets shooting at each other some sending every thing Back to the rear the sitersins [citizens] moving out as fas [fast] as they can the Yankies would not let them be all quiet in camp through the night.

Tues. 14: Clear a little cool our Co. started on picket at day break on the out line near York River[63] heavy cannonading towards Sufac [Suffolk] Sitersins still moving out to day a negro man past in sight of us wee halted him and he ran wee shot at him 5 times But missed him he got a way went towards the Yankees pickets and wee could not follow him set up all night no sleep verry cold.

Wed. 15: Clowdy rain all day relieved at 10 oclock Returned to camp in mud & Rain a strond [strong] gard in Williams Burg all the time rained until dark all wet slep in our wet close [clothes] on the ground stoped rain at dark sleped all night Bought a hog & had some shote[64] [shoat].

Thurs. 16: A little clowdy and plesant our Co. & 4 others went down in town whilst the wagons was halling food from below thare towards James Town and some moving out stayed thare until 2 oclock marched Back to camp & started all except the cavary [cavalry] & pickets & they was moved a little Back Camped at the same place wee left on Friday last before day at the 6 miles ordernary[65] [ordinary] 6 miles from Williams Burg Rested the night all passed off quiet to day & night.

Fri. 17: Clear & plesant still to day no marching to day without further orders all quiet through the day & night drawed Beef.

Sat. 18: Clear & Beautiful morning Seargt. Clark sick & sent to a private house all Quiet in camp heavy cannonading down blow [below].

Sun. 19: Clear & plesant our company coes [goes] out on picket 2 miles below camp got a nice mess of fish & corn Bread for dinner set up all night little rain before day.

Mon. 20: Started to camp at sun rise we moved at 8 A.M. marched 13 miles camped at Diaston Bridge[66] rainy evening and night Col. Goode come to us this morning.

Tues. 21: Clowdy wind misting rain on gard staid hear [here] all day no picket plenty of shod[67] & herren [heron] all quiet in camp.

Wed. 22: Clear & plesant gard Relieved at 8 A.M marched this evening at 2 come to Chickhomany [Chickahominy] 10 miles camped at widdow [widow] Christians mill staid all night.

Thurs. 23: Commenced raining before day started from camp at 8 rained verry hard til [until] after 12 oclock wee all got soken [soaking] wet marched 12 or 15 miles and camped sleped in our wet clothes waded pons [ponds] & creek some wast [waist] deep.

Fri. 24: Clowdy with frequent showers started from camp at 7 A.M. verry muddy waded mud holes and creek all verry tired and stiff marched to camp 12 or 15 miles By 12 oclock all glad to see old camp once more a good many men complaining they had Beens [beans] corn Bacon for dinner light Bread & Butter for supper.

Sat. 25: Clear & plesant on detail for wood chopping all quiet in camp.

Sun. 26: Clear & plesant Roal call 5 times each day inspection & dressprade W. Horris [Harris] returned to ranks. J. Eliott [Elliott] takes his teem [team] I am verry unwell.

Mon. 27: Clear Company drill at 10 A.M. J. Hogan started home on a 7 days furlough.

Tues. 28: a little clowdy no rain S. Overstreet come in this morning W. Fizer come Back a few days before wee got Back they had Brigade drill this evening.

Wed. 29: Clear plesant commenced diging wells in camp for the summer.

Thurs. 30: Clear general inspection answer to pay roals under martching [marching] orders.

May, 1863

Fri. 1: Bell Davis’ Brother come to this company yestady clear plesant 50 men sent down the river from each Regt. to tair [tear] up the warfs [wharfs] Shod woarth [worth] 1.00 [$1.00] each heren [heron] 1.00[68] per Doz all quiet.

Sat. 2: Clear & warm Capt. Fellers got Bit By a horse not dangerous all quiet.

Sun. 3: Clear plesant Capt. Hurts [Hurt’s] Co. come Back and started after the Regt. to night.

Mon. 4: Clear warm excitement 6 or 8 thou. [thousand] Yankee cavelry cut off By Gen. Lee. they are trying to get out they have bin [been] in sight of Camp Lee business all closed in Richmond the siterzens [citizens] under arms.

Tues. 5: Hevy [heavy] rain in the evening & night the Yankee cavalry made their way down towards Williams Burg no mail hear [here].

Wed. 6: Clowdy and cool wind with showers.

Thurs. 7: Clowdy & cool no mail nor papers in our camp J. Hogan & his Brother & young Harris came in the latters was recruits.

Fri. 8: Clowdy & cool Capt. Fellers started home this evening Wm. [William] Whitlow went to the Brig. [Brigade] Hospital.

Sat. 9: Clear & cool with winds no news.

Sun. 10: Clear & warm the Regt. came in this evening Leut. Woolfolk come in & Jim Hardy.

Mon. 11: Clear & hot the papers Reports General Jackson is dead[69] great loss.

Tues. 12: Clear & warm all quiet.

Wed. 13: Clear & warm sent out in charge of a squad of 5 men on picket 3 miles below all pas [pass] of [off] quiet.

Thurs. 14: Clear got a plenty of letters milk $1.00 per gall. [gallon] Relieved at 9 oclock election for 3 [3rd] Leut. in our Co. Seargt. Clark and Seargt Barber the canerdates [candidates] Clark beat Barber only 1 majority Barber now first seargent, mee the second.

Fri. 15: Clear & plesant on Head Quarters gard no prisoners thare move.

Sat. 16: Clear come off gard at 9 A.M. all quiet in camp.

Sun. 17: a beautiful day dressprade [Dress parade] in the eve at 6 oclock.

Mon. 18: Clear plesant drill at 10 A.M. Co. drill at 4 P.M. Battalion drill Roal call 5 times a day little or no news a bout the movements of the different Armies Capt. Davis died late this evening with the Remittent Fever he was Commissary Capt. For this Regt. a nice man.

Tues. 19: Clear plesant no drill this morning on Account of Capt. Davis death Leut. Beard is sick but is mending slowly.

Wed. 20: Clear & dry Co. drill at 10 A.M. Battalion drill at 4 P.M. Roal call at 9 at night The same a [at] 4 ½ in the morning each day.

Thurs. 21: Clear & warm nothing fresh except news papers Reports.

Fri. 22: all quiet in camp as usual.[70]

Sat. 23: Marching orders last night at dark cooked most all night started at 4 A.M. Martched [Marched] to Richmond By distance of 7 miles only left 8 sick in camp from our Co. the Balance all went wee took the York River railroad to the Permonkey[71] [Pamunkey] River 10 miles landed at 11 ½ A.M. and now laying on the River Bank old Sesesh[72] an old dog belonging to our Regt. followed us to Rich. [Richmond] failed to get on the train showed his friendship towards us By running him self most to death to keep up with us which he did he was in our midst by the time wee was in line wee layed out on the __ [73][ground] at the white house clost to the depot stayed all night the wagons.

Sun. 24: Got here to day at 12 oclock clear & verry hot wee are within 8 or 10 miles of West Point and the Yankees pickets half way between plenty of fish of all kinds turned cold in the _________[74] & clowdy.

Mon. 25: holyday[75] windy clowdy & cold on gard to day at Camp misting rain firing a bout West Point letter this evening 9 Slept a good nap during the night.

Tues. 26: Clowdy still cool The Regt. sent out pickets to different places our co. left has the Yankees shelled around a little but would not come out our men came.

Wed. 27: Clowdy & cool yet nice day the Yankees shelling a bout a little trying to find us our men came in at sundown all but the pickets a plenty Fish.

Thurs. 28: Mostly clear Warm sent out Fishing parties for the Brig. & salting them all Quiet to day.

Fri. 29: a little clowdy warm our Co. & Capt. Fellers Co. started at 12 oclock for Glens Buff 7 or 8 miles below on the river 3 or 4 miles of the way was the rufest [roughest] country wee had to martch single file over bluffs & swamps reached Glens Bluff at 5 P.M. & struck camp.

Sat. 30: Clowdy some showers 4 piecies of light artilery here no heavy I am on picket down the river ther is the hardest looking place wee have stoped at yet 4 Companies come down to New Kent C.H. & 2 at the White house and 2 hear [here] all quiet hear.

Sun. 31: Clear & plesant I am Relieved at 8 A.M. Rec’d a letter from my brother yestady [yesterday] and he is at home after a nother horse all Quiet here.

June, 1863

Mon. 1: Clear & warm Got a lief [leave] of absence to day and went By New Kent C.H. & up the White House payed 10 cts. each for fish hooks.

Tues. 2: Clear on picket nothing to eat hear [here] but meat & Bread Misquiters [Mosquitos] & gnats are Bad hear clowdy at & showery all night the Yankees leave West Point.

Wed. 3: Clowdy little rain relieved at 7 A.M. I seen 3 young Ladies wee taken a good ride in a Canoe up & down the river.

Thurs. 4: Clear & plesant no change of clothes With mee I had to pull off my shirt & wash it in the river in cold water and go without until it dried marching orders this evening 4 days cooked rashins one Blanket no more.

Fri. 5: Clear & warm formed a line at 7 A.M. to go down York River to serpate [separate] artillery orders countermanded then sent out the pickets a gain [again] at 1 P.M. started at 2 ordered to meet the Regt. at the White House wee got thare 10 mils [miles] the Regt garn [gone] on orders to come on as soon as possible wee crossed the river in to King William Co. [County] pushed on to Lainsville [Lanesville][76] 5 miles stoped to get some water and it was sundown then on 7 miles farther to the Regt. within one mile of the Matterperoni [Mattaponi][77] River the Yankees passed on down in their Boats a shelling as they went wee was ordered to get over the fence in a pine thicket & take a nap without taking any thing wee had Blankets but could not use them it was 10 or 11 when wee stoped at 12 wee had to get up & started back wee got back to Laynesville & stoped until day.

Sat. 6: Clear & plesant started at 10 & reached the White House a bout 12 rested all the evening & drawed money this evening wee met the old 46[th] at Laynesvill all come back together they went on down whare wee came from all quiet here.

Sun. 7: Clear & plesant Am still at the white house yet me & Jack got a pass and crossed the river & got some milk & Corn Bread.

Mon. 8. Clear & plesant wee got martching orders a little before day & after wee formed a line to start the order was countermanded.

Tues. 9: Clear they sent 2 piecies of heavy guns 12 horses to a piece sent them on the river below hear wee are here yet.

Wed. 10: Clear Martching orders this morning at 3 oclock all packed ready to start but it is 10 and wee are hear yet waiting for a dispatch from Richmond started at 12 Reached Laynesvill at 2 5 miles our Co. and 5 others camped hear 2 Co. went a little farther & 2 stayed at the White House wee camped in the woods I am on acting orderly Sergt. rested fine at night.

Thurs. 11: Clowdy & warm Cleaning out Camp drawed 5 days rasions corn meal ½ pound Bacon per day shugar & rice I went to the mill for washing orders at sundown to coock [cook] 1 days rations & in 2 hours ordered to cook 2 more & beready [be ready] to martch at a moments warning started at day Break reached the white hous [house] at 5 ½ A.M Stoped there got on the tran [train] at 10 got to Richmond at 1 Reached camp Randolph at sundown Slept in our old Bunks once more.

Fri. 12: Clear & warm our Bagage [baggage] hast [hasn’t] come in yet.

Sat. 13: Clear the Yankees on the Chickahominy the 59[th] Regt. had a little skirmish with them & fell Back to Chafins farm our Bagage come in this evening Sergt. Barber with it all quiet.

Sun. 14: Clowdy & cool on gard at Head quarters 2 North Carolina Regt. passed down below our camp General Wise is sick.

Mon. 15: Clear Relieved at 8 A.M. 3 prisoners 2 from Co. D 4 Regt.Yankee    Co. drill A.M. Battallion [Battalion] at 5 P.M.

Tues. 16: Clear drawed 5 days rations Meal & Bacon 5 went Battery in our __.[78]

Wed. 17: Clear & Dry G. Hagers Started home on a 10 days furlough.

Thurs. 18: Clear & warm Reports ses [says] Millroys [Milroy’s][79] fources captured the 59[th] starts Back on the Chickahominy all quiet in camp.

Fri. 19: A fine rain last night & this morning clear & plesant & 12 to day a diging [digging] wells in our camp.

Sat. 20: Clear & plesant I saw a man tide [tied] to a stake and shot at Chafins Bluff a squad of 12 men shot 8 Balls & 4 without Killed for substituting and Diserting [deserting] 2 he was a fine healthy looking man they sed he had fought through 7 Hard Battles bad sight.

Sun. 21: A little clowdy & plesant Mr. gerge [George] Goode came down this evening a little rain.

Mon. 22: Clear & plesant all quiet in camp Mr. Goode went home this morning.

Tues. 23: Clear & plesant on camp gard to day General inspection.

Wed. 24: Clear & plesant Releaved [Relieved] at 8 ½ A.M. Rain evening & night all quiet in camp.

Thurs. 25: Clowdy & showery drawing clothing.

Fri. 26: Showery drawing corn meal & Bacon a plenty & rice & shugar.

Sat. 27:  drzly [drizzly] but plesant Leut. Beard & Thos. [Thomas] Dooly Returned to the Company.

Sun. 28: Still clowdy 2 wells of good water in camp I went a forigin [foraging] to day.

Mon. 29: Rainy I plated[80] & made me & nice wheat straw hat in 2 ½ days.

Tues. 30: Rainning [Raining] General inspection all quiet.

July, 1863

Wed. 1: Rain Brought artillery & plast [placed] them in the Redoubts around Chafins farm.

Thurs. 2: Clowdy no rain Col. Hagers come in day before yestady.

Fri. 3: Plesant on gard garding & potate [potato] patch.

Sat. 4: Clear Relieved at 9 A.M. went Bathing 5 Sargt. [5th Sergeant] Wallis Apointed [Appointed] first Sargt. A. L. Daugherty 5 Sargt. J.A. Hardy 4 Corpral [Corporal].

Sun. 5: Clear plesant Co. inspection.

Mon. 6: Clowdy rain all all[81] the evening Genl. Lee’s fourses [forces] in Meraland [Maryland] & Penn [Pennsylvania].

Mon. 6:[82] Clowdy a big meeting at the 26[th] Regt.

Tues. 7: Rain wee cant go out of sight of camp without A pass now.

Wed. 8: Clowdy with rain I made Billie a nice straw hat great excitement in Richmond.

Thurs. 9: Clear on gard to day at Pearmans.

Fri. 10: Clear & warm old gard Releaved at 8 ½ [A.M] the papers sed that Vicksburg[83] fell in the hands of the Yankees on the 4 of this month & wee recaptured New Orleans.

Sat. 11: Clear & hot I went a Bathing in J. River [James River] wee cant go out of sight of camp without a pass.

Sun. 12: A little clowdy wee got martching orders this morning.

Mon. 13: hear yet rain wee ar [are] ready at a moments warning Clear in the evening.

Tues. 14: Clowdy with showers drawed flower [flour] quite a treat sumplins [Dumplings] for Dinner Strict orders in Camp.

Wed. 15: Clowdy & hot. S. Jeter sent to Brig. Hospital.

Thurs. 16: Clowdy I am on gard at Jones’ Garding cannon.

Fri. 17: Come off of gard Clowdy but no rain a nice mess of sallet parsley & other grass for dinner.

Sat. 18: Clowdy cool some rain more sallet for dinner a Big meeting at 26 Regt. for 3 or 4 weeks

Sun. 19: Clear & warm inspection I went to a Baptising [Baptizing/Baptism] at the river at 5 P.M. & thare was 24 Baptized. H. Heavener come Back yestady to the Camp.

Mon. 20: Clear & warm heavy fogs in morning.

Tues. 21: Clear & warm still under martching orders though all quiet in camp.

Wed. 22: Clowdy & cool W.E. Lowery transferred to Capt. A. Jordan’s Co.

Thurs. 23: Clear & plesant rain at night fall at Fort Hudson all quiet in camp no Yankees in the Peninsula.

Fri. 24: Clear & warm I am on gard down at the Joneses garding Command.

Sat. 25: Clear & warm relieved at 9 A.M. all quiet in camp.

Sun. 26: Clear & warm inspection morning 2 to Baptising [Baptizing] 14 soalgers [soldiers] Baptised.

Mon. 27: Plesant a protracted meeting in our Regt.

Tues. 28: Clear & warm Brigade drill 2 a week at 4 ½ P.M.

Wed. 29: Clowdy with some rain Leut. Beard start home on a 30 days furlough sick.

Thurs. 30: Clear warm all all quiet in camp.

Fri. 31: hot & dry Joe Robertson went home on a 7 days furlough.

August, 1863

Sat. 1: Clear & hot on gard at out post Couldn’t sleep for mosquitoes

Sun. 2: hot Relieved at 9 ½ [A.M.] Mr. Goode & Clinkinpeel came down.

Mon. 3: hot & dry all quiet Mr. Goode started home.

Tues. 4: Clear & hot Brig. drill nothing new.

Wed. 5: Leut. Clark went home as recruiting offerser [officer] for 15 days.

Thurs. 6: Clear & warm gun Boats come up the river wee drove them Back.

Fri. 7: Clear & hot drill.

Sat. 8: Clear & hot I Went after vegetables & Bathing.

Sun. 9: Hot & dry I am on gard at Pearmans.

Mon. 10: Returned from gard at 9 A.M. hot & dry.

Tues. 11: hot & dry I went a Bathing wee are throwing up Breast works clost our camp 20 men from our Co. each day.

Wed. 12: all quiet [last night[84]] thunder storm & Rain. _________.[85]

Thurs. 13: A fine rain in the evening Co. drill.

Fri. 14: Clear & plesant Joe Robertson came in to day on a 7 day furlough.

Sat. 15: Clear & plesant I went a Bathing.

Sun. 16: Clear & hot on gard at the canon the thes [these] misquiters [mosquitos] so bad wee could not sleep. L. Stclair [St. Clair] on fourl. [furlough].

Mon. 17: Clear & plesant and Relieved at 10 A.M. Cannon brought in to camp.

Tues. 18: Clear & warm Brigade drill still working on the fortidorcations [fortifications] and sowing turnips for the Regt.

Wed. 19: Clear & plesant Rec’d orders on dress parade for 1 to every 25 granted 7 days furloughs.

(X[86]) Thurs. 20: Clear cool nights N.M. Brown started home on a 7 days furlough.

(X) Fri. 21: Clear & warm A. Whitlow started home on a 7 days.

Sat. 22: Clear & hot Still (X) times in camp drill regular & work Leut. Clark come in with one Recruit Mr. Harris.

Sun. 23: Very warm & dry.

Mon. 24: Clear & cool & dry.

Tues. 25: Clowdy cool & dry on gard at the guns.

Wed. 26: Clowdy & cool no rain (X) Billie Hicks started home on a discharge I was Relieved & went with him to Richmond L. St. Clair came in on furlough.

Thurs. 27: Clowdy & cool Whit & (X) Jack Atkerson come & went in the gard house looking for martching orders.

Fri. 28: Clear at 2 oclock A.M wee got martching orders had no time to cook wee paked [packed] up & started at 3 before day to Richmond. Wee got to Rockets at day then turned to the right and went down to 7 pines a bout 4 or 5 miles & stoped our wagon Come up in the evening stoped on the Breast works in the field no shade staid all night yankees falling back towards Wm. Burg [Williamsburg].

Sat. 29: Clowdy marching orders started at 12 oclock & marched to Bottoms Bridge on the Chickhomany [Chickahominy] a light shower of Rain late in the evening and camped clost to the Bridge on this side our Pickets 5 miles the other side the Bridge staid all night in the pines no tents cool wind.

Sun. 30: Clear & cool all quiet a round camp I walked down to the Bridge sorry little Trussel was a little creek very swampy a bove & Below Here (X) Huddleston started home on a furlough.

Mon. 31: Clowdy no rain still at the same place all quiet in camp stayed hear all day & all night Yankees has garn [gone] Back to Wm. Burg & wee had general inspection and T. Holdrin [Holdren] (X) was at old camp sick and got a furlough 7 days.

September, 1863

Tues. 1: Clowdy & look like rain at day Break our Regt. started to old camp got thare at noon 15 miles.

Wed. 2: No rain But clowdy.

Thurs. 3: Clear & cool Leut. Woolfolk & H. Kenedy [Kennedy] started home on 7 days furlough. A. Whitlow came in & he sayed [stayed] 4 days over time.

Fri. 4: Clear & plesant Brigade drill as usual all Quiet.

Sat. 5: Clear & plesant started to work on the Breast works a gain as usual.

Sun. 6: Clear & plesant Thar was 45 Baptised this Eve. I went to see them.

Mon. 7: Clear & plesant Batalion drill in eve. R. McClary start home 7 days.

Tues. 8: Clear & plesant Brig. drill & fatigue duty.

Wed. 9: Clear & pleasant. (X) H. Huddleston came in.

Thurs. 10: Clowdy & cool (X) N.M. Brown came in to day revew [review] drill this evening.

Fri. 11: Clowdy & cool Sargt. (X) W. C. Barbour got a furlough last night & I Releaved him from gard at H. Qts. at dark stayed all night Relieved in due time General revue [review] first as wee got out on the field wee got marching orders be ready at the shortest notice 4 days cooked rashions [rations] Cooking nearly all night.

Sat. 12: Clowdy & plesant Boxed up all the surplous [surplus] Bagage [baggage] & sent it to Richmond Making preparation [preparation] to leave old camp for good a good nights rest.

Sun. 13: Clowdy with little rain looking for a start ever [every] moment Pickets division has come to Relieve us General Wise give [gave] up his large garden to us all & wee are living high & orders on dress Prad. [parade] this evening sed wee was going to South Carolina good nights sleep here (X) Leut. Woolfolk & H. Kenedy come in & goode [Goode] & all our sick went to Richmond Last night.

Mon. 14: (Left Virginia[87]) Clear & plesant looking for a start every moment all ready started at 1 oclock P.M. martched 3 miles to the Richmond and Petersburg Rail Road 8 miles below Richmond and taken the rain at dusk for Petersburg Landed at Petersburg & martched through town to the Weldon depot and slept out in a grass lot slept fine.

Tues. 15: Clowdy & plesant wee taken the train for Weldon N. Carolina 80 miles Crossed roanoak [Roanoke] River [arrived] at town at 3 oclock P.M. a small place of several hundred strong & taken the Willmington [Wilmington] train at 4 P.M. traveled all night come By Golsburrow [Goldsboro, N.C] a nice little city 81 miles & strait [straight] through to Wilmington 162 miles Crossed Black Water River & Tarr [Tar] River Booth [Both] small The poorest forest & swamppiest [swampiest] & livelist [liveliest] I ever saw. A good shower of rain.

Wed. 16: Clowdy reached at 9 this morning Stoped here I went over the town & to the river Cape Fear River navigable for large vessels a nice place & sorry water clear & hot this evening drawed 2 days rations Bacon & Crackers Stay all night in some old cabins slept Splendid.

Thurs. 17: Clowdy & raining stoped rain at noon at 4 P.M. wee martched to the river one mile & crossed the river on a steam Boat Quanaties [quantities] of cotton at the warfs [wharfs] got on the Wilmington Manchester at 7 P.M. our Company out on flats a hard rain got weet [wet] & dark & wee 44 miles & 5 Boxes run off the track at 12 oclock & delaid [delayed] until 8 ½ this morning.

Fri. 18: Crossed the line in South Carolina 64 miles Crossed Pedee [Pee Dee] River Got to Florence at 5 P.M. 105 [miles] from Wilmington then started from Florence at 6 P.M. for Charleston traveled all night on a frait [freight train].

Sat. 19: Landed in the city at 5 this morning a nice large city wee can see Yankee gun Boats from the Warf & hear the Reportes from the continual firing between thars [theirs] & ours & see the smoke From Florence to Charleston 104 miles wee martched a mile below the depot & staid all night Bacon & Crackers.

Sun. 20: Clear hot days and cold nights I am on guard a round camp wee stayed all day and night.

Mon. 21: Clear wee was Relieved at 8 this morning & took up line of martch pased [passed] through the city a south west corse [course] & Crossed Ashland River on a double Wagon Bridge ¾ of a mile long & martched 6 or 8 miles out on Stoane [Stone] River & camped in a [an] old field no wood nor water Conveniant [convenient] move but Branch water only[88] 4 tents to a company.

Tues. 22: Clowdy & alitle [a little] rain wee catch Crabbs & Clams & oisters [oysters] out of the marshes heavy cannonading.

Wed. 23: Clowdy & cool drawed money and rations to day.

Thurs. 24: Clowdy & plesant the Boys fishing for Crabs all quiet in our camp But heavy shelling clost By.

Fri. 25: Clowdy & looks like rain Co. inspection wee cant Buy nothing to eat hear but seet [sweet] potatoes.

Sat. 26: Clear & warm days & cool nights all quiet.

Sun. 27: Clear & Warm General inspection this morning.

Mon. 28: Clear & warm drill 2 a day Col. Daugherty came from the hospital W.C. Barbour got in camp.

Tues. 29: Clear & very warm Brigade drill on gard at H. Qts. a good house to sleep in to night.

Wed. 30: Clear Releaved at 9 A.M. inspection & drill clowded [clouded] up in the night & rain all that had no tents got wett [wet] our mess is without any tent or shelter.

October, 1863

Thurs. 1: Clowdy & showery Sargt. W.C. Barbour & Myself run for Leut. & Barbour was Elected By 5 Majority.

Fri. 2: Clear Leut. Beard is come [coming] to the company and is now Capt. Commanding.

Sat. 3: Clear & warm all quiet.

Sun. 4: Clear & warm a slight shelling to to[89] day nothing fresh.

Mon. 5: Clear & warm I went to Charleston on a pass & parused [perused] the city & enjoyed myself the best I could without cingle [single] Acquaintance every thing very busy.

Tues. 6: Clear & warm days and cool nights.

Wed. 7: Clear & Warm cool nights wee are keeping up seven pickets posts a round camp.

Thurs. 8: No change in the weather & no change in camp.

Fri. 9: The weather the same still cannonading hear.

Sat. 10: Clear Tom Haynes come to the Company on guard.

Sun. 11: Clear & warm Relieved at 10 A.M. nothing new.

Mon. 12: Clear & warm H. Overstreet come in & they put him in the guard house & quiet in camp.

Tues. 13: Clear & plesant Brigade drill drawing a small drink of whiskey to a man each morning Rain at night.

Wed. 14: Raining & warm Wee are Building durt [dirt] houses.

Thurs. 15: Still raining & wee are still Building durt houses to stay in.

Fri. 16: Clear & plesant inspection ishuring [issuing] caps & draws [drawers][90].

Sat. 17: Clear Me & 4 men got a pass & went up the Railroad 6 or 8 miles & saw a[an] Alegater [alligator] 6 or 8 feet long laying out swimming had no gun.

Sun. 18: Clear inspection I am on camp guard.

Mon. 19: Rain before day all the guard got wet Releaved at 10 A.M.

Tues. 20: Clear & very hot I am on poleace [police].

Wed. 21: all quiet in camp Making preparations for a general Revue.

Thurs. 22: I went to Charleston on a pass & saw them firing the Big gun Clear & warm Returned to camp at sun set got martching orders & cook 3 days Rations as quick as possible.

Fri. 23: A thunder cloud & heavy Rain & still in camp wee went out for Revew But it was put off.

Sat. 24: Clowdy & Rainy a very hard thunder storm & heavy Rain.

Sun. 25: Clowdy no Rain cool all quiet in camp.

Mon. 26: Clost clowdy & cold Winds heavy firing.

Tues. 27: Clear & cold General inspection this morning.

Wed. 28: Clear & pleasant F. Holdren come in.

Thurs. 29: Clear and warm General revew By Beauregard & staff heavy cannonading.

Fri. 30: Clear all quiet in camp orders to move.

Sat. 31: Clear & warm. Pay Roal inspection By Col. J. Thos. Goode [Thomas Goode].

November, 1863

Sun. 1: Clowdy Company inspection on H. Qts. guard Relieved at sunset on account of moving.

Mon. 2: Clear & warm wee started from camp Wappoo[91] 8 A.M. & landed at Camp Magruder 6 miles west of Camp Wappoo and our Regt. are ocupying [occupying] the Negro cabins & out houses on this farm.

Tues. 3: Clear & warm A heavy camp guard a plenty Big Rattlesnakes.

Wed. 4: Clear & warm got a pass & went out after sweet Potatoes martching orders last night.

Thurs. 5: Clear still under martching orders but hear yet & ready for a tramp wee stayed all night.

Fri. 6: Clear & warm our Regt. left Camp Magruder for James Island Camped on the Wappoo Cut within 1 ½ miles of Charleston Got hear at 2 P.M. o clock.

Sat. 7: Clear & warm the Yankees shelling Fort Sumpter [Sumter] strong wee have a nice camp & tents at las [last] wee are held in Readyness for short notice.

Sun. 8: Clear & very warm Me & 8 or 10 more went in Bathing.

Mon. 9: Clear & pleasant Cool at night frost.

Tues. 10: Cool this morning and frost drill 2 a day.

Wed. 11: Cool & a heavy frost I went in the Island.

Thurs. 12. Clear & warm wee ar [are] under martching orders to go on James Island to Relieve the 46[th] Regt. of our Brigade. F. Holdren was appointed Corpral [Corporal] in Co. I & the Balance of the No. Com. Offecers [Non-commissioned officers] went up By promotion.

Fri. 13: Clowdy & pleasant tents all struck & a loading for the wagons for the trip all But the sick started at 10 A.M. Martched 5 miles got hear at 1 P.M. & 5 Co. on the Right of the Regt. went down to Fort Johnson & Relieved half of the 40[th] Regt. & the left camped hear 1 ½ miles from Fort Johnson.

Sat. 14: Clowdy and plesant the 5 left Co. Relieved the Right 6 ½ AM Me & 7 men detailed for camp ground very Bad water Rain at sun set and turned cool heavy firing.

Sun. 15: Clear & cool I am Relieved at 9 this morning the 5 left Co. will stay out until Tuesday morning.

Mon. 16: Clear & warm I went down to cary [carry] our men thair [their] Breakfast & went down to fourt [Fort] Johnson.

Tues. 17: The Right Releaved us & wee went to work a Round the same day a Regular firing is kept up on fourt sumpter from Battery Grage [Gregg] on the point of Morriss [Morris] Island Battery Simpkins on Grage [Gregg][92].

Wed. 18: The yankes tried to take sumpter in the night But failed fourt moltry[93] [Fort Moultrie] shells Morriss Island & the gun Boats when they come in Rainge [range] the [they] keep a continual shelling Backwards & forwards on each other day & night Bad water.

Thurs. 19: Clear & plesant the yankees shelling Charleston from Morris Island without mutch [much] damage.

Fri. 20: Clear & plesant Jack Sled come to camp & him & me went down & saw them shell a while & Simpkins was shelling Moriss Island & wee could see the yankees Run a [at] the crack of our gun & as soon as the shell woud Burst they come to thair work a gain & they Replied to our guns & also a steady fir [fire] on sumpter & they now & then start one to Charleston which was long shooting.

Sat. 21: Wee are under martching orders to leave the Island very windy at noon all packed up & Ready to start orders for furloughs 2 to a company wee started & martched 7 miles & took up camp near our old Wappoo camp got hear at dark the Regt. is all together a gain

Sun. 22: Clowdy & plesant camp Between the Turnpike & the Rail Road tents & flies[94] up.

Mon. 23: Clowdy & cool and must of [must have] Rain all day & night the 26[th] Regt. moved clost to us & wee are under martching orders to move Back to camp Magruger [Magruder].

Tues. 24: Clowdy & misting Rain tents all struck & at the Rail Road wee started at 8 A.M. & Reached old camp Magruder at noon & went in our old winter Quarters a heavy guard a Round camp S.H. Jeter come from home to camp the day before wee started here.

Wed. 25: Clowdy & damp & warm Regt. inspection.

Thurs. 26: Clowdy little Rain & warm wee are in our houses as before Capt. A. Jordans [Jordan’s] & Capt. Lucks [Luck’s] Co. are in charge of Batterys [Batteries] clost to our camp.

Fri. 27: Clowdy & warm & some Rain T. Gassedge[Gossage] & D. Hoges [Hodges] started home on a 15 days furlough started yestady.

Sat. 28: Clowdy & Raining most all day & night Col. Harrison has come to the Regt.

Sun. 29: A steady Rainy day & night & cold wee get sweet Potatoes at 4 dollars per Bushels.

Mon. 30: Cool & clowdy & Rain I have Bin on the sick list 4 o [or] 5 days with cold settled in my Breast & head.



December, 1863

Tues. 1: Clear & cool Big frost I Report for Duty this morning plesant after the sun gets up a little.

Wed. 2: Big frost clear & cool me & 2 men was detailed to carry H. Overstreet of our Co. to H. Qts. To be tried By Court Martial got Back to camp at 3 oclock P.M. a Jack fell in our well before day.

Thurs. 3: Clear & plesant day Big frost this morn.

Fri. 4: Clear & pleasant I went to Charleston on a pass all quiet in town.

Sat. 5: Clear & warm days & cool nights.

Sun. 6: Clear & plesant Co. inspection.

Mon. 7: Clear & plesant I went to Charleston walked thare & Back all quiet in Charleston.

Tues. 8: Clear & plesant on camp guard 81 men on guard each day offersers [officers] included & orderly men.

Wed. 9: Clowdy & warm Releaved at 9 ½ A.M. Now Rain under martching orders.

Thurs. 10: Clear & pleasant cooked one days Rations and sent all our Bagage on the train started at at 12 ½ P.M. & martched up the Rail Road 10 miles & camped No Blankets nor tents with us they was all on the Cars & they was a head.

Fri. 11: Clowdy & warm slow mist of Rain no Breakfast & wee martched 10m [10 miles] & stoped at 1 oclock & wee was very hungry & the the men that went with the Bagage had our dinner cooked corn Bread & Beef & wee made it move like chaft [chaff] before the wind wee camped at the depot called Adams Run Station no. 2.  28 miles S.W. of Charleston wee use water out of the tank for the Regt. A.M. Goode met us hear.

Sat. 12: Clowdy & Raining 4 Co. of the Right went up the Road Rained all night a low measley [measly] country.

Sun. 13: Clowdy & Rain all night hard & slightly all day 2 more Co. of the Right left this morning went above T. Ayers came to the camp.

Mon. 14: Clear our Co. & Capt. Pettes [Pettus] Co. started for Youngs Island 14 miles on Pickets Rite [right] on the marsh on the out Picket post wee got on the Island in the eve. 2 hours By sun I was sent out on Picket with 7 men.

Tues. 15: Clear wee was Releaved at 9 A.M. a low swampy Pines & sedge But Rich land & wee are camped in the pines Lieut. Mason in Comd. [command] Capt. Beard is Discharged & garn [gone] home Lieut. Woolfolk in Comd. of the Co.

Wed. 16: Clowdy & Rain wee weather Boarded our fly with Brown sedge & a pine pole flow [flue] & a moss carpet & a big fier [fire] in front which makes a comfortable dwelling for a Soldier Some of the men went out & caught several Raccons [Raccoons] without a dog in the day time.

Thurs. 17. Clowdy & warm and several coons and some Rain.

Fri. 18: Clear & cool I went on Picket & stayed all night.

Sat. 19: Clear & cool Releaved at 9 oclock A.M. Marten [Martin] Boswell & J. Hardy went home on a 15 days Detail.

Sun. 20: Clear & plesant all quiet on this Island.

Mon. 21: Clear & plesant wee catch oisters [oysters] & Buy sweet Potatoes for a change of diet.

Tues. 22: Clear & cool & wind I am on Picket & seen the Yankees lights up at night.

Wed. 23: Clear & cool wind Releaved at 9 A.M. Co. inspection at 11 A.M.

Thurs. 24: Cool wind Wee are making a Bridge through the marsh to an oister Bed to have a Big mess for Christmas.

Fri. 25: Clear & cool Christmas day & A very heavy cannonading on Johns Island. Col. T. R. Page attacked a gun Boat on the Stoane River the firing Commenced several hours Before day & lasted until towards the middle of the day.

Sat. 26: Clear & cool all quiet in camp wee drew ½ gill[95] of whiskey to a man & corn Bread & Beef wee went out and got oisters & catched a possum some times & now & then wee could Buy a mess of sweet Potatoes But seldom hear.

Sun. 27: Clowdy & showery & more plesant Mr. Harris one of our mess mates got some sausage & spair [spare] Ribs from home & wee had a nice supper and Breakfast next morning which was a nice christmas treat with one nice mess of Bedford Buscuits.

Mon. 28: Clowdy & raining & high winds & I am on Pickets stoped Rain & highwinds and cool now house.

Tues. 29: Clear & cool Releaved at 9 A.M. orders for general inspection.

Wed. 30: Clowdy & Rain last night all night No inspection yet.

Thurs. 31: Clowdy & warm Looking inspection the last day of the year all Quiet with our camp.

January, 1864

Fri. 1: Clear & cold inspec. [inspection] By Major Wise[96] of the 46 Regt. New years day.

Sat. 2: Clear & cool Wee made us a little Boat & wee catch a plenty of oisters every day.

Sun. 3: A little clowdy But no Rain.

Mon. 4: Clowdy & Rain Rain All day & our Fly leaked & __ wind high.

Tues. 5: Clost clowdy with showers I am on picket & it Rained all night.

Wed. 6: Clowdy & warm all quiet in the Co.

Thurs. 7: Clowdy & Rain slowly on picket cool.

Fri. 8: Clowdy Rain windy & cold Releaved & Sargt. Boswell & James Hardy came Back Marten Brough[t] a Recrute [recruit] with him & Bob Houston came in as a Recruit.

Sat. 9: Clear & cool order for inspection J. Haskin went home furlough.

Sun. 10: Clear Big Frost & warm after the morning inspection.

Mon. 11: Clear & warm wee worked on our tent all day & Built a chimney.

Tues. 12: Cloudy with Rain & warm all quiet.

Wed. 13: Clowdy & Rain all day & night on picket.

Thurs. 14: Clowdy & damp no Rain Releaved at 8 A.M.

Fri. 15: Rain in the evening wee had a drill.

Sat. 16: Clear & plesant Jas. Hudson start home for 20 days on getting his Brother in the Co. as Recruite & Smith Webb Join the Co.

Sun. 17: Clear & warm on guard at camp Rain before day.

Mon. 18: Clowdy & showery More drill all quiet.

Tues. 19: Clear & windy drill in the eve.

Wed. 20: Clear & plesant Lieut. Woodfolk and Lieut. Clark garn to Adams Run for examination.

Thurs. 21: Clear and plesant I am on Picket and all confi__sion[97] [conversation] in the Co. about Capt. all want 1st Lieut. Woodfolk Captain and he wont stand the examination and Lieut. Clarke will & it is __ or some one else out of the company and wee don’t want Clark.

Fri. 22: Clear & warm Releaved this morning at 8 1/4 A.M. wee held Election for Capt. & Lieut. Clark and Sergt. Channing Sale was Run & Sale Beat him 14 votes.

Sat. 23: Clear & warm nothing else new in comp. J. Taylor S. Houston P. Murrell started home yestady.

Sun. 24: Clear & warm.

Mon. 25: Clear & warm on guard at camp.

Tues. 26: Clear & warm Jack Sled & I went a hunting Killed nothing all quiet in camp.

Wed. 27: Clear & very warm for this time of year.

Thurs. 28: Clear & warm Still Drilling & a Regular cannonading dayly [daily] as usual.

Fri. 29: Clear & warm I am on picket general inspection & no drill.

Sat. 30: Clear & warm wee drawed money.

Sun. 31: Clear & warm wee went in the River Bathing.

February, 1864

Mon. 1: Clear & warm All quiet in camp.

Tues. 2: Clear & warm heavy cannonading going on a Round Charleston orders for us to through [throw] up Breast works.

Wed. 3: Clowdy & cool Wind I am on guard nothing new.

Thurs. 4: Cool a sprinkle of Rain at night Capt. Sale start home.

Fri. 5: Clear & cool Wee have not commenced work yet.

Sat. 6: Clear with wind I am on picket.

Sun. 7: Clear & plesant Releaved at 8 A.M.

Mon. 8: Clear & plesant wee have killed 6 or 8 wild coons come in good time meat is scarse [scarce] all quiet.

Tues. 9: Clear & cool fighting on Johns Island all day marching orders & started from camp to J. Island tonight at 8 ½ & marched 10 miles.

Wed. 10: Clear & cool stayed hear until noon then wee was ordered down on the Island wee marched 1 mile then crossed the River & after a hasty martch of 9 miles wee stoped & lay in Readiness to martch at a minutes warning to go Reinfose [reinforce] wee stay all night started at[98]

Thurs. 11: 8 A.M. & martched 4 miles to Major Jenkins Hed. Qts. & waited for Reinfosements [reinforcements] wee drew 1 pound of flour per man & 46 Regt. & 6 comp. of the 4 Regt. our 6 Co. under the command of Liet. [Lieutenant] Col. Harrison & at 3 ½ P.M. the Ball opened with the artillery & our Regt. was on the left wing to keep them from flanking us in the woods & Briers & waiding [wading] water general Colprits[99] Brigade at georga [Georgia] formed on our left a bout one hour before sunset & the Yankees saw us & they seasced [ceased] firing in the senter [center] & fell Back then wee fell Back 3 or 4 hundred yas. [yards] & lay in lines all night & put out a line of pickets in front I was on picket & wee was wet up to our knees then layed out on the swamp & no fire

Fri. 12: they opened fire a while before day & wee started at 8 A.M. & moved a Round on the Right & deploied [deployed] our Regt. out as skermishers [skirmishers] but the Yankees left & wee all marched back a little ways & waited for orders I saw 2 dead Yankees & some prisoners & wee lost a few men & wee got orders to Return to out old camp & wee marched Back some 4 miles whare some men had bin detailed to cook for us & wee got a little snack a bout 2 oclock in the[100] & nothing to carry with us & wee martched until dark & camped within 3 miles of the Bridge and nothing to eat that night started

Sat. 13: clear & cool wee started this morning at light for camp know [no] Breakfast & 13 miles before us wee martched hard through the dry sand near shoe top deep & Reached camp at 11 ½ A.M. tired & hungry & nothing but dry Bread when wee got thare but that eat seet [sweet] anofe [enough] & wee eat our Bread & washed off and put on some clean clothes & wee slept all night without any trouble in tents on pine poles and Broom straw.

Sun. 14: Clear & plesant got a big mess of oisters for Breakfast J. Taylor S Huston & Jas. Turner came in yestady & J. Hudson J. Haskin came the day before & B.D.P. Murrell came in to day.

Mon. 15: Clear & plesant wee drawed our usual Rations a gain a detail for fatigue and picket as Before wee left camp.

Tues. 16: Clear & high winds and cold all quiet in camp.

Wed. 17: Clear & cool nothing new in camp.

Thurs. 18: Clowdy & very cold & high winds I am on picket a little snow at sundown the coldest night I have seen since I have bin in this state.

Fri. 19: Very cold & windy Releaved at 8 A.M. very cold all day

Sat. 20: Cold & clear & heavy frost still & beautiful.

Sun. 21: Clear & pleasant inspection all quiet in camp.

Mon. 22: Clear & plesant furloughs went out & came in 3 time before they was approved Keys starts home.

Tues. 23: Clear & warm furloughs came in all night 4 of some of our com. Reinlisten [Re-enlisting] for the war.

Wed. 24: Clear & a little wind Collins Drewry Vaughn A. Young started home.

Thurs. 25: Clear & warm Drawed shoes & socks in the co. all quiet.

Fri. 26: Clear & warm all quiet in camp

Sat. 27: Clear & plesant I went to Adams Run on guard at the quar[101] department 10 miles.

Sun. 28: Clear & warm Return to camp they had Co. inspection A. Campbell and our new Capt. R.C.M. Sale came in to day.

Mon. 29: Clear & windy & a little cool our men Reinlisten [Re-enlisting] for the war.

March, 1864

Tues. 1: Cool high winds & clowdy & sprinkle of rain.

Wed. 2: Clear & plesant regular muster & general inspection.

Thurs. 3: Clear & cool me & J. Hogan went to Charleston on a 36 hour pass got on the cars at New road Station 18 miles from the city stayed at the way side home whilst in town and they was shells falling in the town day & night whilst we was thare.

Fri. 4: Clear & plesant I deposited $200.00 at the treasury office in a 4 per cent [4 percent] Bond things are very high in Charleston Raw cotton $1.35 cts. per pound.

Sat. 5: Clear & plesant we left the way side home at 6 A.M. & taken the train at 7 ½ & got to camp at 11 A.M.

Sun. 6: Clear heavy frost I am on picket all quiet in camp.

Mon. 7: Clear & plesant I was Releaved at 8 A.M. we are drawing salt Beef ¾ of a pound and some times Bacon 1/3 of pound per day & meal & seldom flour.

Tues. 8: Clear & warm I had to drill some Recruits.

Wed. 9: Clear & plesant I am detailed with the wash party on at 9 A.M. & off at 5 P.M.

Thurs. 10: Cool & high winds & Rain all night.

Fri. 11: Clowdy winds & Rain a very heavy thunder cloud & tremendous heavy rain & storm we drew 3 gills of molasses for 2 days in the place of meat.

Sat. 12: Clear & warm this morning.

Sun. 13: Clear & warm W. Fizer started home on a 30 days furlough on getting a Recruit we had dresprade [dress parade] yestady.

Mon. 14: Clear & plesant all quiet in camp.

Tues. 15: Clear & cool with little wind on our work.

Wed. 16: Clear & cool wind we drew 2 ½ hearens [herons] per day for one day.

Thurs. 17: Clear & cool we are still getting plenty of oisters.

Fri. 18: Clear & cool high winds I am on Picket 5 furloughs came in approved.

Sat. 19: Clear & pleasant Relieved at 8 ½ A.M.  A.M. Goode A. Kanes [Abram Karnes] B. Coffee S. Johnson A. Powell started home on 15 days furloughs on Reinlistment [re-enlistment] & A. Young E. Collins J. Vaughn Y.P. Keys[102] came in on Regular furlough co. inspection all quiet in camp.

Sun. 20: Clear & warm the cavelry [cavalry] has orders for Va.

Mon. 21: Clear & pleasant we drew no meat to day eat oisters.

Tues. 22: Clowdy & Rain cold winds all day & night no meat.

Wed. 23: Clowdy & cold clear in the evening I am on picket a very cold night & high tides.

Thurs. 24: Clear & heavy frost after the sun got up the wind rose again Releaved 8 ½ A.M.

Fri. 25: Clowdy & Rain all day and night.

Sat. 26: Clear & warm & high winds company inspection.

Sun. 27: Clear & plesant but windy we & 7 mor [more] of our Co. went over on a Boat to the Wadmelaw[103] Island a bout 4 miles on the water down the Tougaloo[104] 2 miles and crall the Wadmelaw swamp A. Behealer[105] furlough.

Mon. 28: Clear cool wind on picket clowdy & Rain at night.

Tues. 29: Clowdy high wind & Rain Relieved at 8 ½ hard showers through the day & night.

Wed. 30: Clear & cool & windy 7 furloughs came in approved for myself J. Sled W. Davis J. Boules J. Powell B. Watson and Joseph Watson for 15 days on Reinlistment. all quiet in camp.

Thurs. 31: Clear & pleasant & windy we all started out to the Railroad at 9 A.M. and taken the train at 2 ½ P.M. 20 mi. to Charleston. Stayed all night at the wayside home comfortable.

April, 1864

Fri. 1: Clowdy & warm & Raining got Pasport [passport] & Transportation on the North Eastern train for Florence at Noon crossed Santee River at 5 P.M. 45 mi. from Charleston & a swamp each side the river Trissel [trestle][106] works for 3 miles got to Florence 9 ½ P.M. started for Wilmington 103 miles at 11 oclock the same night but steady Rain all night crowded no sleep.

Sat. 2: Clowdy cool & showers Reached Wilmington 9 ½ A.M. 105 miles & started for Weldon at 10 ½ A.M. & was crowded all the way reached Weldon at 3 oclock A.M. and staid thare until day light & started 163 miles & by Golesburrow [Goldsboro].

Sun. 3: Clowdy & cool started from Weldon at 6 A.M. & Reached Petersburg at 3 ½ P.M. & started 81 miles for Lynchburg at 5 ½ P.M. & Landed at Lynchburg a[at] 5 ½ A.M. 108 miles.

Mon. 4: Started from Lynchburg at 6 A.M. & it raining & went 11 miles to the Forest depot & walked home in the rain.[107]

April 15, 1864: Me & Jack Sled & John Mason left home for camps on Youngs [Yonges] Island SC [South Carolina] started from home Tuesday morning at 7 A.M. & walked to Lynchburg 15 miles & taken the cars at 8 p.m. & traveled all night.

Wednesday, April 20: Arrived in Petersburg at 8 A.M: 135 miles. Left Petersburg at 10 ½ A.M. & Arrived at Weldon NC [North Carolina] at 4 ½ P.M. 63 miles Left Weldon at 7 P.M. change traines [trains], the Engine disabled & lost several hours time.

Thursday, April 21: Arrived at Wilmington, at 3 P.M. 162 miles Crossed the river on the boat at 11 P.M.

Friday, April 22: Started on a Frait [freight] train at 12 ½ A.M. Arrived at Florence at 9 ½ A.M. 104 m [miles] Left Florence at 12 M [P.M]. Arrived in Charleston at 9 ½ p.m. 105 miles Stayed at the way side home all night.

Saturday, April 23: Taken the Charleston & Savanah [Savannah] train at 7 A.M. 28 miles to Adams Run & then a foot to camp on Youngs [Yonges] Island 9 miles.[108] I reached camp me & J.L. Mason My recruit cool & clowdy all quiet in camp Y.P Keys died at H.Qrs. [headquarters] Hospital whilst I was at home about Apr 3th [April 3rd] a good solder [soldier].[109]

Sun. 24: Clowdy & rain most all day.

Mon. 25: Clear & pleasant I am on picket.

Tues. 26: Clear & warm Releaved 8 ½ & we moved our camp down at the picket post & all went in houses am gauarding [guarding] &.A.M. Goode & E.W. Harris went. Capt. Fellers H. goes on reg. detail as guard my cook day.

Wed. 27: Clear & warm, all poleasing [policing] our camp

Thurs. 28: Clear drill 2st. [twice] a day done work I cut hair for the Co. & bathing clowdy all night.

Fri. 29: Clear & pleasant am on picket.

Sat. 30: Clost cloudy Co. inspection at 9 A.M. & payroal [payroll] inspection By Lieut. Col. Wise.

MAY, 1864

May Sun. 1: Clowdy & windy drill 2st a day rain in the evening.

Mon. 2: Clear & warm I picket & we are guarding.

Tues. 3: Clear & warm all quiet on Youngs Island.

(X)[110] Wed. 4: Left Youngs Island for Va at 4 P.M.[111] Clear & warm marching orders at 7 A.M. & 3 we went in Bathing & 4 P.M. we started for Adams Run Station 12m [12 miles] sent the sick to Hospital got hear at 9 P.M & stayed all night.

Thurs. 5: Clear & warm drawed [drew] 3 days rations Bacon & crackers our Regt. once more together the Regt. got on 2 trains & left Adams Run at 11 ½ A.M. for Charleston 28 mi. all flats[?] traveled all night.

Fri. 6: Clear hot days & cool nights Reached Florence 11 ½ A.M. 105 m. no changing at Florence nor stop run 4 miles & 2 flats run off the track & broke them to pieces killed no one but slightly wounded 4 or 5 Stoped 1 ½ hours then run too [two] miles more & layed [laid] over until 9 P.M. run all night without any axident [accident].

Sat. 7: Clear & very hot reached Wilmington at 12 ½ P.M. 104 mi. & stayed thear [there] until 9 ½ P.M. Off for Weldon traveled all night.

Sun. 8: Clear & beautiful reached Weldon at 8 P.M. drew two days rations of crackers 50 rounds of catrages [cartridges] to Each man & left all the Baggage & knapsacks and sick thare 162 mi. Loaded our guns & got on the Petersburg train at 10 ½ P.M.

Mon. 9: Clear & warm traveled 34 miles on to Stoney Creek whar [where] the Yankees burnt a bridge & tore up the track at 6 A.M. we got off the train hear [here] & started at 9 A.M & marched up the R.R. [railroad] they burnt 3 bridges. We marched 12 mi. by sundown then waited for the train for Petersburg 17 mi. very hot marching & no sleep hardly.

Tues. 10: Clear & warm landed hear at 7 A.M. & are now laying on the street started out on the Lines at 10 A.M. and & 4 miles out on the R.R. between Petersburg & Lynchburg then we was sent on the Enemys left flank & put out 1/3 of our men on picket at 1 hour By sun & the balance of us is laying in readiness in the woods picket skurmishing [skirmishing] with the pickets all day once more in old Virginia we went out on the picket line & lay all night this is the 8 [eighth] night since we left Young’s Island SC all quiet with us last night most entirely without sleep or rest.

Wed. 11: Clear & pleasant still laying in line some little picket firing early but all still now at 8 ½ A.M. our Brigade was ordered back on the Petersburg & City Point R.R. a bout 5 miles east of the city came through town & reached hear 4 ½ p.m. 12 miles & camped all night heavy wind & some rain at sundown.

Thurs. 12: Clowdy & raining no shelter at 10 A.M. we was ordered to double quick to town 5 miles in the rain We split the mud for 1 ½ miles then ordered Back & at 3 P.M. we went 5 miles out on the Norfolk R.R. & laid thar in the rain & at 10 P.M. we went back which taken [took] near all night.

Fri. 13: Cloudy & raining all wet this is the ninth day & night without rest at 3 P.M. our Regt. was ordered down on the Weldon R.R. marched 10 miles in the rain we stayed in and got a shelter for the night & no fire slept in our wet clothes 1 ½ miles from town.

Sat. 14: Cloudy cool. We have not bin [been] dry for 3 days & 10 days tramp after the morning showery at 1 P.M. we left the shelter & moved 1 mi. out in the woods then in ½ hour we was ordered to reinfose [reinforce] Jen. [Gen.] Picket [Pickett] on the P&R[112] R.R. We martched through the town then ordered back 6 miles march for nothing layed [laid] on the ground all night.

Sun. 15: Cloudy & cool looking for marching orders showery drew 2 days rations at 3 ½ P.M. we got marching orders & started come through town to the Richmond depot & stoped 3 mi. Stoped there staid 2 hours & all marched 3m up on the R&P R.R. stoped.

Mon. 16: Clear & warm stayed the balance of the night at day light we marched 2 mi. & then our Co. & Captain Shacks & Capt. Hurts were sent out as skirmishers & we advanced on the Yankees left wing & we advanced 2 mi. & met their pickets & we pressed them & had a hot time for about an hour then our fourses [forces] with artilery & Infantry advanced & heavy firing kept up for an hour & repulst [repulsed] the enemy all still now & we are advancing Liut. [Lieutenant] Woolfolk wounded in the left shoulder & heavy fighting on our left our 2 Co. advanced 2 mi. as skurmishers a head on the right we caught one of their Scouts then we fel [fell] back By the left flank then we doubled our line & advanced through their camps & fell back to draw them out as we could not cross the creek & R.R. with our artilery so they advanced & fell back & we shell the woods & fel back for the night our Regt. once more together we was moving all day yestady & last night until 1 oclock A.M. this is 13 days & nights since we left our camp SC. I dont know the losses on neather [neither] side. General Whiten[113] in command today.

Tues. 17: Clear & hot the drum beet [beat] for a start at 7 ½ A.M. we marched the turnpike & crossed the rail road whare [where] we fought yestady we moved to the left & at 1 P.M. we formed our left on Gen. Beauregard’s right & lay in line of Battle with a line of skirmishers in advance the R.R.& turnpike one [once] more clear of Yankees from Petersburg to Richmond & the Yankees fell back in their entrenchments between Appomatox [Appomattox] & James River no fighting on the right today we lay in line all night.

Wed. 18: Cloudy & pleasant a bout 2 hours before day heavy skirmishers on our left with some shelling then we was fortifying on our lines we repulsed their pickets & firing seased [ceased] at day break we are still fortifying with such means as we have with us firing increased to be very heavy & company after Co. Co. D & Co. C & Co. E [Companies D, E, and G] was sent out 11 ½ A.M & we went up behind a fence & we was under the heaviest kind of skirmishing until dusk we was ordered to sease firing we was under fire 7 hours & Releaved after dark J. Taylor woonded in arm bad L. Johnson in chin & hand slight W. Davis in hand W. Adkissin [Atkinson/Adkinson?] hand very slight of company I none killed in Co. [D?] cannonading on boath [both] sides thare was 2 killed & 27 wounded in our Regt. I don’t know the loss on the Yankee side nar [nor] I ours more than our Regt. all was still last night & our 3 Co. was releaved after the firing had seased & we come out & taken a nap but as we was going in the fight it rained very hard we got soken [soaking] wet & remained so until we come out & slept in them & by morning they was dry.

Thurs. 19: Cloudy with showers we cut a line of rifle pitts [pits] last night whare our line of battle was yestady skirmishing began at day light & at sun rise there was a sharp artillery duell [duel] open for a ½ hour and then seased up to 3 P.M. light skirmishing with Infty. [Infantry] & artillery & our 3 Co. resting at dark our 3 Co. went out a gain to releave [relieve] the others we taken our old position & staid all night & fortified and the Yankees kept up a slow firing all night.

Fri. 20: Clear & foggy we are still on the line no firing yet we are ordered to advance this morning at 9 ½ A.M. Our line of skirmishers made a charge on the enemies works which was near a ½ a mile we sucseeded [succeeded] in reaching their works & foursing [forcing] them back we mounted their works & persued [pursued] across the field we taken a good many prisoners & killed & woonded a large nomber [number] of them then they opened on us with grape & canister & we fell back to the works that we charged them out. I brought a prisoner back with me our lines suffered smartly in the charge my Capt. Woonded in the leg slightly G.A. Jones in head and thigh badly W. Fizer in the hand slightly & several missin [missing] in company I it was very hot we held the works & went to work with our hands & Bayonets and soon strengthened them the Yankees formed & charged us 3 times in the center but was repulsed with heavy loss then they tried our right & left flanks but they was bound to give it up they left the field strewed with dead and woonded they [their] shelling was kept up until night we was fortifying all night with out sleep or rest I had a hand in all this my self their [there] is only one Cm. Officer [commanding officer] with us now Liuet. Clark in the 3 days we had 107 men killed & woonded in our Regt.

Sat. 21: Clear & pleasant morning some picket fring [firing] this morning we worked more or less all day some shelling & sharp shooting was all until night there was a heavy shelling for a ½ hour & some firing with Infty. [infantry] on our left 8 of our Regt. woonded but none of our Co. as the firing did not bear on our Co. they was woonded by shells we laid behind our works on the damp ground with but little sleep for we rather exspected [expected] a charge.

Sun. 22: Clear & warm a slight shelling & picket skirmishing all day 3 of our men & 3 of the Yankee’s each tide [tied] a white handkerchief on a pole and met each other half way between our works & thears [theirs] 3 times & talked with each other for what perpous [purpose] I dont know more than the Yankees wanted to come after their dead that we killed when they fell back after we charged them & in their several efforts to retake the works which they failed after dark our Brigade was releaved & we marched a round on the left 4 miles from Drewrys Bluff & rested the balance of the night which was badly needed we are on the line of works.

Mon. 23: Clear & warm we are still resting & the Yankee’s are shelling the woods hear from their gun boats last night & this morning from James River their [There] is a detail from each Co. for work.

Tues. 24: Clear & warm all of our Regt. is still except a small detail from each Co. for work Lieut. W.G. Barbour & Priv. T. Bell come to the Co. from Weldon N.C. R. Lile was slightly woonded in hand returned to Co. orders to clean guns for revue [review] by General Bragg but he has not come around.

Wed. 25: Clear & cool their was a thunder cloud last night cool wind no rain at 1 ½ P.M. we marched over on the left of the line on Mr. Hawletts farm our left rested on his dwelling house which is badly shelled we are fortifying all night cloudy & rain we are on the bank of the James River on the Petersburg side.

Thurs. 26: Clear & cool & misting rain at 10 A.M. it looks like Breaking off & getting hot A stray shell now & then from the Yankee gun boats in sight of our works we are on the East bank of James River 2 or 4 miles below Drewry’s Bluff we laid in our works & worked all night.

Fri. 27: Clear & hot still at the same place.

Sat. 28: Me & 8 of our company went out on picket close to the Yankee pickets we are on the advance line in our rifle pitts [pits] 3 or 4 yds. [yards] from our line of breastworks a few shells today evening cloudy & raining slowly all night it was very dark our regt. was releaved in the eve & went back to the rear for a few days & we picketts had to stay all night.

Sun. 29: Clear & cool releaved at 10 A.M. & fell back and joined the Regt. again we stayed thare until 1 P.M. then all of the fourses was ordered up to the front and we went back to our same position in the breastworks our Regt. is on the left of the Brigade and our left is within 200 yards of the River looking for an attack.

Mon. 30: Clear & warm all quiet except a few shells from the gunboats Company H next on our left had two men badly woonded they was lying on the bank a shell bursted [burst] clost [close] By a peace [piece] cut thease [these] 2 mens leg off each at the knee within 8 steps of whare I was sitting and 3 ½ P.M. there was sharp artillery duell began & lasted 1 hour they shelled our end of the line very heavy from the river a peace of shell struck another of Capt. Luck’s men mortally woonded him through the rump[114] & hip was all the damage in our Regt. that I have heard of all quiet through the night.

Tues. 31: Clear & hot we moved 200 yds. to the right. A little before day still in the trenches all 3 of Capt. Luck’s men dide [died] last night By 12 oclock still at work our lines of artillery shelled the Yanks at 2 1/2 for one hour but no reply from the Yankees.

JUNE, 1864

Wed. 1: Clear & very hot we shelled the Yankees line this morning just before day I am on guard we completed our works at this place at sun down at 11 P.M. we shelled the Yankees a gain I was on guard little sleep.

Thurs. 2: Clear & hot at 6 A.M. our line of pickets opened fire & charged the Yankee pickets & routed them & drove them back ½ of a mile & cutting aline [a line] of rifle pitts beyond the ones they was in the pickets was a detail from each Co. on the line & a detail of the sam [same] went to reinforce & as the firing seased [ceased] our Co. was sent out on the line of picket in advance & we was cutting rifle pitts at 8 A.M. we had 1 man J. Huddleston slightly [wounded] of our Co. our Regt. had killed & wounded & killed wounded & captures of the Yankees we lay in our rifle pits all night & heavy firing & rain all night not a wink of sleep all wet we kept down in our pitts & none hurt in our Regt.

Fri. 3: Cloudy stopped rain at day & the Yankees seased firing at day & kept back out of sight  we put our videts[115] [vedettes] out in front & we was relieved at 6 A.M. all quiet on the line to day.

Sat. 4: Cloudy some fiering [firing] on the line last night our knapsacks come in we got some clothes out & sent them back to the rear all the afternoon clost rain & some shelling from the Yankee boats we are still behind our works rain all night.

Sun. 5: Cloudy & showery me & 10 men from our Co. on the advance Picket line in sight of the Yankee videts in thick woods 5 oclock [P.M.] A heavy cannonading on each side night clear but little firing between the pickets during the night.

Mon. 6: Clear & pleasant after the morn. very hot. Taked [took] of of [off] my shirt & had it washed & went without until it got dry. Brigade inspection all quiet on our line to day.

Tues. 7: Cloudy & cool with little wind all tolerable still on the line still fortifying & putting up obstructions.

Wed. 8: Clear & warm I am on guard up most all night all quiet on the line.

Thurs. 9: Clear and warm I was releaved at 8 A.M. heavy cannonading from both sides & picket skirmishing but know [no] regular engagement.

Fri. 10: Clear & warm all quiet on the line still strengthening our works and putting up obstructions in front of our works.

Sat. 11: Clear & warm marching orders we was releaved By a Alabama Brigade under Big Gen. Grace[116] & our Brig. started at 1 P.M. for Petersburg 2 miles on the S.E. [southeastern] side at battery No. 28 whare Col. Spears made his rade [raid] a few days before & was chaced [chased] Back the Balance of the Brigade is scattered on our right & left on different roads we reached hear at 6 ½ P.M. 12 miles.

Sun. 12: Clear & cool I was on guard last night & relieved at 8 this morning our cavalry scouts captured 2 Yankee scouts & Brought them in we moved a little to the left to battery No. 22. I was on guard again.

Mon. 13: Clear & pleasant all Quiet hear at present we was still all day we had to kee [keep] out Pickets.

Tues. 14: Clear & cool on guard this morn. we moved a mile up to the left on the same line of works all quiet.

Wed. 15: Clear & hot days & cool nights the Yankees advanced on the left on the city point road with cavalry Artillery & Infantry & engaged our cavalry & fought for 3 hours & had to fall back then at 10 A.M. they began to press our sharpshooters all a long our line & they drove our Pickets in we was in our outer line of works no troops on the line but our Brigade & they was scattered a Co. in a place to serpate [separate] our artillery & Gen. Dearing’s Cavalry they shelled us & amed [aimed] to charge our works but was repulsed as weak as our lines was but about 5 P.M. they reinfoursed on our left & taken our works on the City Point road our Regt. was on the right of the line so at dusk we was sent on the left to reinfose so we was moving on the line all night 4 or 5 Brigades come in as reinfosements at day light we stoped on the line and was ordered to fortify with Bayonets & hands which we did in front of the works that the Yankees taken & holds with strong fourse [force] our men suffered smartly whare they lost the works some firing on the line all night no sleep & I am entirely bear [bare] footed with the Co.

Thurs. 16: Clear & warm cool nights & heavy dews heavy skirmishing all day & we are still fortifying looking for the enemy to charge us all night Know [no] sleep All up & guns in hand all the time.

(X) Fri. 17: Clear & warm dry weather getting our works strong more reinfosments coming in Col. Goode in Comd. of the brigade. Col. P.R. Pale Ser. Col [Cole] woonded & dide [died] at 8 A.M. our Brigade was ordered & moved half of their length & stoped went to work a gain to strengthen the the works whare we stopped the videts firering [firing] all a long the line & at 3 P.M. our Brigade was still ordered to the right & started instantly & before we got to our position they charged our works in 8 lines for a short space & broke our line whare the right of our Regt. was we was scattered a long a mong men who had their position the right of our Brig. a mong SC. [South Carolina] Regt. whare the line was broke & the left rested in a N.C. [North Carolina] Brig but the men rallied & soo[n] retaken the works thia was on our new line then that connected with the old a little to the right this new line had no elevation for artillery thare was a nother laid off in the rear a ½ mi. on a high place & just before day our men fell back & fortified it left our skirmishers a picking at them whilst our main line was fortifying on the new line that connected with the old original line on the right we had four men wounded slight.

Sat. 18: Clear & warm at day light our new lines established & all at work General Lee & Hill come in with strong reinfosements at 7 A.M. our skirmishers graguly [gradually] fell back in front of our main line & at 8 A.M. we was relieved (our brigade) & fell back & sent around on the extreem [extreme] right of our line & taken our position in the works & we was releaved a gain & sent back on the left in rear of as reinforcements in case the line is Broke clost to the line whare the shells & some minnie Balls visit us regular we are in Gen. Johnston’s Division & we got a nights sleep the first sleep we have had for 3 nights.

Sun. 19: Clear & pleasant heavy skirmishing & regular shelling from Bothe [both] sides day & night we had preaching twis [twice] I watched the mortar shells falling on our lines some shells throwed in town.

Mon. 20: Clear and warm I am on Prov. [provisional] guard regular firing as usual shell bursting every whare a mong our reinfosements.

Tues. 21: Clear & warm the usual roar of artillery & musketry are kept up I was releaved at 8 ½ A.M. we drew coffee & shugar & and Peas.

Wed. 22: Clear & very hot dry weather at 9 ½ A.M. our Division by orders moved to the right we marched 2 mi. & stoped a while a regular engagement on our right an open field fight we captured 1,600 Prisoners 8 stands of collers[117] [colors] and 6 pieces of artillery & hansomely [handsomely] repulsed them then we fell Back though our Brigade moved 2 miles out side of our works & formed a line of battle & our Co. was put out on picket & remained until 12 ½ A.M. then we was ordered back in side of our works & stoped for the night at 2 A.M. & layed over until morning.

Thurs. 23: Clear & warm drew rations corn bread picle [pickle] pork 1/3 per pound shugar & coffee at 9 A.M. we moved to the right a gain at the same place we was last night we formed a line 2 ½ or 3 miles in rear of our works & our Co. a mong others formed an entire skirmish line in front & the Yanks advancing on us at one hour by sun in the evening at 10 P.M. our line was unmolested & all fell back inside of our works with 500 Prisoners captured moved regt. about sun down & we Barefooted men for the first time was aloud [allowed] to march out of ranks only after dark we went back on the left & went in the ditches just before day light.

Fri. 24: Clear & very hot heavy skirmishing on the line as usual a very heavy artillery duell opened on the line & lasted a bout 1 hour our men charged the works at battery No. 5 but had to fall back with a loss of 300 prisoners lost & captured 30 of the Yanks clost (X) sharp shooting Henry Kenedy [Kennedy] our of Co. was shot through the head & Killed instantly at 4 ½ P.M. clos [close] to the city behind our works whilst shooting he was a good soldier we worked all night & no sleep.

Sat. 25: Clear & very hot heavy sharp shooting all day no regular engagement I drawed [drew] a pair of shoes after being bear [bare] footed for 9 days & doing duty all the time a sharp cracking for a few minutes with the videts then the usual old pop pop[118] was kept up all night we carried on our works all night & no sleep only one man aloud to leave the ditch at a time this is clost confinement.

Sun. 26: Clear & dry & very hot all quiet on the line except for the usual sharp shooting.

Mon. 27: Clear & hot some shelling on the line & heavy sharp shooting several men Badly wounded in our Regt. every day whilst sharp shooting from behind our works & some going & coming after water evening a light shower of rain & wind & turn cool & cloudy all night & work all night.

Tues. 28: Clear & cool the usual crack of the rifle is all to Brake [break] the silence this morning this is the 8th day in the ditch in 2 ranks & Know [no] sleep at night at 8 P.M. we had orders to be releaved we stood in readiness all night & started just before day light & marched Back to the same place in the rear clost to the lines.

Wed. 29: Clear and cool we are in rear for __ and reinforcements at the senter the usual excitement is going on 18 men out of our Co. was detailed for work & worked all night & R.L. Dent was woonded in back badly & A. Kennedy dide at Petersburg Hospital day before yestady the Yanks are shelling the city day & night regular. Sergt. Wallce sick and I fill his place.

Thurs. 30: Clear dry & hot we are at the same place 5 men detailed for work to day at 5 ½ P.M. the Yanks charged our lines on our left & in front of ware [where] we are & we formed line to reinfose if kneeded [needed] but did not move our lines repulsed them with heavy loss & our Brigade lost 1 killed & 7 woonded from strong musketry at 6 P.M. all quiet a gain except Picket & some shelling & 2 more men from our Co. on detail for work all night & no rest.

JULY, 1864

Fri. 1: Clear dry & very hot the usual old crack of war guns day & night our Regt. drawed some shirts & trousers the Yanks still shelling the city.

Sat. 2: Clear & Extreamly [extremely] hot this morning at the crack of day our Co. was sent out on works & come in at 3 P.M. the regular shelling also with mortars & sharpshooting heavy details for work day and night.

Sun. 3: Clear hot & dry nothing new as yet all of our Co. got all night to sleep.

Mon. 4: Clowdy & a cool wind pleasant all quiet but the usual old sharp shooting & shelling.

Tues. 5: Clear & hot a goodeal [good deal] of mortar shelling we have orders to go to the front lines we went in the ditches after dark down on the left whare they shell us from everyway but from the rear they have a direct cross fire from both ways our works are like a fence warm to stop the crossfire all up all night.

Wed. 6: Clear hot & dry They have shelled us with canister & mortar all day & Clost sharp shooting we have had no sleep on the line dayly [daily] exspecten [expecting] an attack a man is truly darren [daring] to poke his head above the picket on either side.

Thurs. 7: Clear & hot Clost sharpshooting today & shelling This is the 3rd day we have bin in hear & we have had 8 or 10 killed & woonded that I know of 2 killed dead both shot through the head within 5 steps of me.

Fri. 8: Clear & hot still heavy sharpshooting & we are getting some killed & wounded every day our Co. has bin very lucky up to the Present none hurt up to 3 P.M. a bout 5 P.M. we had orders to be in readiness for a charge we all got ready & a tremendous roar of sharpshooting was kept up for about one hour then things got to its usual Quietness this was done to find their strength & we kept a clost lookout during the night.

Sat. 9: Clowdy for a few hours then cleared off & turned very hot & sultry weather we are looking for an attack every day & night the Yanks Plays their Bands.

Sun. 10: Clear & very hot the Yanks shell us strong with mortars & clost sharpshooting is the topic of the day & night.

Mon. 11: Clear & hot & dry. J.P. Watson & H.R. Foster was woonded in the ditch with mortar shell Watson in sholder [shoulder] & Foster in head desperate shelling several bursted [burst] down in the ditch & very clost sharp shooting.

Tues. 12: Clear hot & dry still in the ditches the 8th day & our Brigade has los [lost] 7 killed & woonded 54 men. 1/3 of each Co set up & watch at once until 2 A.M. then all the Co. sits up until sun rise that gives but little sleep.

Wed. 13: Clear hot & dry still same old music.

Thurs. 14: Clear & hot & dry very heavy mortar shelling sharpshooting more calm today we was releaved at 10 P.M. & went to the rear after 10 days in the trenches.

Fri. 15: Cloudy & cool & look like rain I got a permit to go to the Qu.Ma’s [Quartermaster’s] whare our baggage was to get some clean clothes I taken a good bath & changed clothes which was badly kneeded I returned to camp at sun set & we had orders to go to the front & at 8 P.M. we went to the right of whare we come from & releaved General Elliott Brigade only 1 days rest.

Sat. 16: Clear & hot the sharpshooting was not as constant on our front as when we left the trenches & shelling on our right and left, but none fell in our brigade to day we keep out videts in front day & night John L. Mason sick & sent to the rear last night the same rule about sleep ¼ of the night & that divided.

Sun. 17: Clear & hot & dry one man killed & wounded in our Regiment on videt front we drew wheat Bread yestady and to day & Sergt. Wallace come in for duty.

Mon. 18: Clowdy & cool I am on videt duty to day 150 yds. in front of our entrenchments we stayed all day 7 was releaved after dark and tt clouded up & sprinkled rain during the night.

Tues. 19: Clowdy & a clost days rain & gentle it stoped about 5 P.M. but clost cloudy & the mud & water shoe-top deep in the trenches & we are all wet & muddy at sun down they shelled us some & after dark we moved 200 yds. to the left & 2 Regt. of our brigade went out to rest.

Wed. 20: Clear & very hot heavy shelling on the left Corp. Jas. A. Hardy [Corporal James A. Hardy] was shot through the breast with a minnie Ball [Minie ball] whilst going to the spring after water & Dr. ses [says] mortally he was prompt to his duty & a good soldier.

Thurs. 21: Clear & very hot the ditches has dried up still heavy sharpshooting & shelling we are building Bum proofes [Bombproofs][119] for protection.

Fri. 22: Clear and very hot thick fog about day light we work and watch day and night and they shell us morning and evening only one day out of the trenches and during the 17 we have bin in Corp. Jas. A. Hardy dide of wound Thomas Coppedge slightly wounded in head with Minnie Ball.

Sat. 23: Clear & hot I am out in front of the works on videt duty I taken several fair shots not knowing the results we was relieved after dark & a part of our Regt. the left was releaved & we went back to the rear to rest a few days.

Sun. 24: Clowdy all of us was sent to the front to work to day come in at 6 P.M. & it commenced rain & rained steady all night & all of us wet.

Mon. 25: Clowdy & cool and windy we are alloud [allowed] 3 hour leave of absence to get to the city Whare our baggage is to change clothes I went to town to get some clean clothes & I paid 3.00 [$3] per quart for mash potatoes to make me a mess & 2.00 for trimming my hair.

Tues. 26: Clear & pleasant me & 8 men of our Co. was detailed to work on a battery on the front but we did not work we come back at dusk we all went back in the Trenches & releaved the 4 right Co.’s of our Regt.

Wed. 27: Clear & warm our duty is hard in the trenches one fifth of the men each day for sharpshooting in front of the works & one third on watch in the ditches.

Thurs. 28: Clear & hot all still this morn. except sharpshooting & shelling & at 4 ½ P.M. our Brigade was ordered to the right & we come out the trenches the Yankees shelled us very heavy whilst moving we all went in again at dark on the right of the Brigade that was on our right whare shelling but no picket firing in our front. The same rules as before.

Fri. 29: Clear & very hot the main lines in our front is a bout 600 yds. & videts are within 100 to 150 yds & we go in front of our works after water 2 or 3 men wounded in the Regt. by a cross fire on our left whare they keep a continnual [continual] sharp shooting in the Brigade on our left & our lines are Enfilated [Enfilade[120]] all a long hear they could sweep our lines but for the traveses [traverse[121]] we have across them on our left the 2 lines are within 150 yds.

Sat. 30[122]: Clear & very hot  every thing calm at day at 5 A.M. the Yankees blew up a Battery of 4 guns on our line By undermining Pegram’s battery such a sight I never saw. The Earth trembled for miles a round they charged that place & got perseesion [possession] of the line whare our men was blown up it was on a high place & they charged in heavy masses at that place and amed [aimed] to flank our rear right & left & charge our front & they crossed our works & amed to form about 100 yds. on our rear they was foursed to fall back to our works in double kwick [quick] & they held a space of 150 yds. & we Poured in to them with shells and small armes [arms] from right and left & was so thick in that little space & they had but little Protection that they was killed until the ground was covered & we closed right & left & on them as soon as the Explosion was over which was done in 5 minutes the Yankees opened all their artillery & mortars on us & enstead [instead] of charging our line they opened fire from their works & such roar & crackling of shells I never saw nor heard they saw their flank movement was a failure they stoped shooting from their works only at intervils [intervals] after several hours then now & then & to keep us from bringing up reinfoursements [reinforcements] but at 1 ½ [P.M.] Mahones Brigade & 2 left Regts. of our Brigade on the right & a part of Elliott’s [Brig.[123]] on the left Mahones in the center gave a yell & charged them out in a few minutes with a desperate slaughter of Yankees & Negroes all together about 3 P.M. heavy firing begin to sease & we closed in to the left slowly on our feet & guns in hand all day & very hot & under desperate shelling musketry from their works the Prisoners ses [says] they was ordered to charge us all a long our lines we kept up a close watch all night things was quiet during the night the mine was sprung in. Gen. Johnston’s present our losses Elliott’s Va. Brigade 300 killed & wounded & 300 Prisoners. Gen. Mahone’s 450 killed & wounded General Wise’s 150 killed & wounded our loss total 1200. The Yankees loss is 700 killed & 300 wounded & 2,000 Prisoners Negroes & Yankees this is what the Papers stated first day after the fight I think very correct from what I saw myself.

Sunday 31st: Clear & hot all quiet in our front to day some little sharp shooting in front of whare the works was Blown up the works are so clost to gether thar [there] is no videts in front the papers ses [says] we taken 20 stands of cullers [colors] I went up whilst the flag of truce was up & I never saw so many dead Yankees & Negroes all in our works & down in the hole & from works to thars [theirs] & some woonded & they could not get to them some messages past But the dead & wounded was not moved until the next day our wounded was taken up & cared for & our dead Buried was taken up all of them to day none of our dead & wounded fell in the enemy’s hands thare was a good many I suppose 100 or 150 was covered up from the Blast & our men are working on the works thare digging them out we made the Negroe Prisoners pile up the dead Yankees that was in side of our works & Bury all the dead Negroes that was in our hands in that hole their [there] was several hundred lade [laid] in the deep grave they dug with the help of gun powder all was quiet at our front usual rules of setting up at night some of our men plundered the dead pulled of [off] their clothes & some of the Yankees was striped [stripped] most naked & one I saw was naked.

AUGUST, 1864

August 1864 Mon. 1: Clear & warm all still this morning except some sharpshooting we closed a little Back towards the right & about 5 A.M. they sent in a flag of truce to Bury their dead which was granted & they was buissy [busy] engaged until 9 A.M. 4 hours & the men was up on top of the Parripet [parapet][124] on both lines as fare [far] as I could see right & left so we got a good look at each other no shooting during that time I also saw 2 Yankee Generals standing on their works a looking no shelling this evening but sharpshooting began as soon as the flag was taken down after dark we moved to the left our right rested at the blow up near our old place on the left.

Tues. 2: Clear & very hot & dry all tolerable still to day no shelling in our front since the fight we have bin drawing Beef for several days one 5th up at night.

Wed. 3: Clear & very hot all still on our lines except sharp shooting some few cannon was fired before day from both sides the first since the fight from boath [both] sides.

Thurs. 4: Clear & hot & dry there has bin [been] but very little shelling since Saturday & usual sharpshooting & sitting up at night.

Fri. 5: Clear & dry & the hottest weather I ever saw we found a mine in Grace’s front & taken out the Powder & placed it under thar [their] rifle Pits and blowed [blew] it up it was not so large as Grant’s for it was only intended to save our selves from a blast.

Sat. 6: Clear & hot nothing new to day. Sergt. Boswell Corpl. Gibbs & Priv. Hogan sent to the Brigade Hospital from the trenches Lt. J.H. Clark the only Com. [commissioned] officer & me the only N. Com [non-commissioned] officer with the Co. and 22 Men present for duty.

Sun. 7: Clear & warm all quiet on the line except a Brisk sharpshooting & some shelling very hot & dry weather.

Mon. 8: Clear & hot the usual quietness prevails to day at dusk Thomas Harris of our Co. was wounded in the left leg whilst going to the spring was Amputated clost below the knee he was prompt to his duty.

Tues. 9: Some clouds passing & no rain usual Quiet prevails a long our lines at night whilst out on Picket was severely woonded [wounded] in the right shoulder & sent to Brig. Hospital and C.W. Adkison [Adkinson] went back to the wagon yard on a 4 hour Pass to get clean clothes his Brother Jack & cousin Wm. Hogan was at hospital all 3 run away from Co. I 34th Regt. Va. This being Jack’s 2d [second] attempt & William’s 3d [third].

Wed. 10: Clowdy with a nice shower regular Picket firing & some shelling.

Thurs. 11: Clear & hot Sergt. Wallace come in yestady & several of the men from the Hospitals & I am on picket to day and Releaved at dusk.

Fri. 12: Clear & warm our sappers[125] & miners are mining on different parts of the line & Grant is reported to be a doing the same.

Sat. 13: Clear & hot and dry nothing new on the lines reasonably quiet.

Sun. 14: Clear & dry & hot still sharpshooting T. Harris dide at the hospital in Petersburg this morning from woond [wound] Sergt. A.C. Daugherty dide at hospital in Richmond from disease the 5th of this month a light thunder shower this evening.

Mon. 15: Clear & warm evening thunder shower & heavy rain very mudy [muddy] in the trenches all Quiet as usual.

Tues. 16: Cloudy & hot I was on detail to day as Prov. guard a little rain in evening & night.

Wed. 17: Cloudy & look like rain. Rain in the evening & early part of the night & ¼: 2 A.M. [1:45 A.M.] our artillery opened all a long the line for about ½ hour but little reply from the Yankee lines.

Thurs. 18: Clear & pleasant & every thing still this morning but sharp shooting. Lt. Woolfolk Returned to the Co. yestady evening some little excitement on the right the Yankees made a raid on the Weldon R.R. 6 mi. below Petersburg & got possession of a small portion of our fourses [forces] was unable to drive them back.

Fri. 19: Cloudy & rain most all day & same last night & this morning at 3 A.M. heavy cannonading on both sides until light all a long our lines we expected an attack & was in readyness it did not come off [of] mud over shoe top deep all a long the trenches & we have to take of [off] our shoes no shelter but a blanket & at night none we have to take them down still sharp shooting.

Sat. 20: Clear & hot at 12 M. [P.M.] & in the evening a hasty thunder storm tremendous hard rain every body wett & everything we had rain all Eve. & clowdy & misting all night all of our clothes had to dry on us heavy fighting on our right on the W.R.R. [Weldon Railroad] No Particulars.

Sun. 21: Clowdy & rainy all the morning heavy cannonading began at 4 A.M. & lasted until 6 A.M. very rapid on both sides & it still continues on the right & left. Fight renewed on the W.R.R. this morning some little cannonading until noon all tolerable still in the eve.

Mon. 22: Cloudy & misting rain very muddy & no releaf [relief] from the ditches some cannonading & clost sharp shooting. I had a very hard chill at 3 A.M. & deep cold Dr. ordered me to the Brigade hospital & I would not go.

Tues. 23: Clowdy another chill gest [just] before day & the Dr. sent [me] back to the rear cleard [cleared] off about noon very warm.

Wed. 24: Clear & very hot I missed my chill last night I taken [took] a wash & put on some clean clothes once more. All seems tolerable Quiet as far as I can hear.

Thurs. 25: Clear & warm everything is hard out hear the sick eats only 2 a day & very light at that heavy fighting on the right late this evening on the W.R.R. No particulars up to dark rain at night.

Fri. 26: Clear & warm shelling on the left and senter our Brigade moved to the right yestady morning yestady they Brought in 3,091 prisoners 18 peaces [pieces] of artillery & a long train of the wagons & Ambulances that was captured at Reames Station on the Weldon R.R. our loss very small owing to the flank move we made on them we drew 4 months wages for the first this year John L. Mason returned from the Chimbarazo Hospital Richmond heavy wind and rain last night.

Sat. 27: Cloudy & cool all seems quiet on the lines I can’t hear any firing a beautiful day some shelling in the Eve.

Sun. 28: Clear & cool & a beautiful morning I am still at the Hospital well But week [weak].

Mon. 29: Clear & pleasant nothing new more than very heavy shelling on the line & also the Yankees are shelling the city. Rain in the evening.

(X)Tues. 30: Clear & warm I was returned for duty this morning & went to my Co. in the trenches our Regt. is at the old Blow up the senter of the Regt. is over the old blow up and our Co. jest [just] to the left. Some Shelling in our front off and onn [on] all day We was alowed [allowed] to swap papers and Tobbaco [tobacco] & so on for a little while this evening.

Wed. 31: Clear & warm drawing some few clothes for the Regt. to day No pickets in our front we sharpshoot from the main lines between 12 M. [P.M.] & 1 P.M. Corp. W. A. Gibbs[126] of our Co. was shot through the head with a Minnie Ball whilst making some preparation for a shade in the trenches By a Yankee sharp shooter struck clost above the left Eye & killed instantly I was sent to bury him & I got a Plain government Coffin & deposited his remains near the Petersburg Semetary [Cemetery] & gave his nap sack [knapsack] to his nephew Miner Gibbs of Company E.


Thurs. Sept 1: Clear & warm some shelling I went to the ordinance train after acutrements [accouterments]. Nothing unusual.

Fri. 2: Clear & hot some shelling & but little sharpshooting & Exchanging Papers & swapping tobbaco for knives & so on with the Yankees. T.L. Sledd come down to see Jack at the Hospital and I got a pass & went over to see him & he did not come in the trenches heavy shelling late in the evening as I went in.

Sat. 3: Clowdy & look like rain all day & night but no rain exchanging papers a gain to day. T.L. Sledd leaves for home this evening By Richmond Jim is at home sick Joseph Huddleston slightly wounded with a shell I put in my Applycation [application] for fourlough [furlough] on my return.

Sun. 4: Clowdy & cool all quiet this morning Exchanging papers again this morning Nothing unusual.

Mon. 5: Clowdy & cool Exchanging papers a gain Constant shelling for a few hours late in the evening & at 10 P.M. Every [Very] costant [constant] lightning & heavy rain & clowdy & misting rain all night drew coffee & sugar we are still in the trenches yet.

Tues. 6: Clowdy & misting rain and cool all day but little shooting in our Front to day & no shelling yet.

Wed. 7: Clowdy & cool misting rain all quiet as usual except some sharp shooting & shelling.

Thurs. 8: Clowdy & still misting rain at daylight our Brigade was releaved from the trenches & went back in reserve Drill 2 & Roal [Roll] call 3 times a day our Regt. went in the rear trenches at night.

Fri. 9: Clowdy & misting rain at daylight we left the rear trenches & went back to the rear a gain & another Regt. of our Brigade will go tonight I got a pass to go to the wagon yard in the evening & about 2 oclock P.M. J.D. Hodges[127] was mortally woonded in the head with a stray Minnie Ball whilst he was prearing [preparing] his dinner struck in the left temple good Bacon worth $6.50 per pound.

Sat. 10: Clear & warm drilling 2st [twice] a day & roal call 3 times Hodges is a living yet Some shelling on the line & the fragments fell in our camps also Minnie balls.

Sun. 11: Clear & cool we went to the front relieved Elliott’s Brigade at the old Crator [crater] the same position we had before Co. K is in the Blowup & they had one man killed whilst sharp shooting in head Minnie Ball 26 & 59 [26th and 59th] Regts. of our Brigade was in the rear trenches a bout 200 yds. in rear of the front line & they wished to come to the front ditch so a bout 2 P.M. our Regiment exchanged with them the rear works are weak yet J.D. Hodges dide this evening rain in the evening.

Mon. 12: Clowdy & cool & showery still in the rear ditch & heavy details for work in front of the main line & the old blow up we are cutting a picket line & the Yanks shelling us.

Tues. 13: Clowdy & cool I got a pass to town doors closed no Buisness [business] going on Thanksgiving day.[128]

Wed. 14: Clowdy & misting rain & cool at day light we taken our old position on the front line to the left of the crator very heavy shelling in the morning until near noon & Planting stockade in front of our works at night no sharpshooting in our front that night.

Thurs. 15: Clowdy soon in the morning no rain clear before noon I was sent in charge of 6 men on detail to the rear for 3 days to cut 700 logs from 8 to 10 in. through 14 feet long For Bumbproofs [bombproofs]. T.A. Mitchell landed with his boxes for the company Sergt. Wallice [Wallace] come out to the hospital sick Boswell act. [acting] Sergt. until me or him gets back. Lt. Barbour & J. Hogan come down on a train last night the Brigade moved to the left.

Fri. 16: Clear & cool a little fight on the Weldon R.R. a victory on our side still cutting timber for the Bomb Proofs.

Sat. 17: Clear & warm finished cutting the 700 logs & one load in we all reported in the trenches to our companies at or near Battery No. 5. No sharp shooting in our front.

Sun. 18: Clowdy & cool In the trenches 6 men of the 46[th] regiment deserted last night & one from Co. D. our Regt. & some before from the 26[th] & 46[th] since we have bin at this place on the line very little sharp shooting in our front or cannonading.

Mon. 19: Clowdy and alittle [a little] shower. Robt. [Robert] Hudson come in from home on sick furlough. J.W. Sledd come in from division hospital and W. Cassell come in from the cook yard and Me and the same detail of 6 men that was out chopping last week are ordered out a gain & we will go to the cook yard this evening.

Tues. 20: Clear & warm we grind our axes this morning & go to the woods about 2 miles in the rear of the cook yard Mr. Goode was down with his son as the Qr. Ma. Depot. [Quartermaster’s Depot] & he gave me a nice drink of Brandy & a good Breakfast of home vitels [vittles].[129]

Wed. 21: Clear & warm in the woods very heavy shelling on the lines this morning a bout sun rise 2 men killed & one woonded in our Regt. one Co. C Co. E. & woonded Co. D all was quiet in our front after 9 A.M. some sharpshooting in our front now a fine rain at night.

Thurs. 22: Clowdy but no rain I reported to Col. R. Harrison & he ordered me to build stables for 6 horses & report to him in person every three days so I returned to the waggon [wagon] yard at night.

Fri. 23: Clowdy & misting rain we are at work on the stable this morning & getting slabs all seems quiet as usual.

Sat. 24: Clowdy & rain off and on through the day we worked all day & did not have to go in we got a bout half the stable up.

Sun. 25: Clear & beautifull all quiet around hear We ar [are] resting to day at the Waggon yard.

Mon. 26: Clear & pleasant days & cool nights in the woods a gain.

Tues. 27: Clear & pleasant nothing new some talk of our Brigade going to the Vallie [valley] to reinfose Gen. Eearly [Early].

Wed. 28: Clear & cool halling [hauling] logs & finishing the stable reported to Col. Harrison I still go on with the logs & send 2 of my detail into their Co.s [Companies] so Taylor Co. I & Key Co. E went in the next day Our Brigade come out of the trenches to rest for 10 days for the first for a long time.

Thurs. 29: Clear & warm thare was a move on the North side of James River & we sent troops from hear so our Brigade had to go back in the trenches this morning & some skirmishing on our right at night & the 2nd wee had orders to be ready to move at a moments warning some little frustration among them.

Fri. 30: Clear & hot orders to go on halling logs everything still and quiet in our front.


Sat. Oct. 1, 1864: Clowdy & rain all day & most all night last night heavy firing of artillery & infantry all a long the lines last night very hard fighting on the Weldon R.R. was all day & until late in the night I saw 70 or 80 Prisoners from thare going to Petersburg raining night rather excitable times hear.

Sun. 2: Clowdy a part of the day but no rain some fighting on the right to day our Brigade was ordered around thare they went & was ordered Back in the trenches to the right of the old blow up.

Mon. 3: Clowdy & misting rain all seem still within my hearing this morning we are halling logs & cutting fire wood for the Trenches rain in the evening wett.

Tues. 4: Clowdy & warm I bought some sagham malasses[130] [sorghum molasses] at $7.50 per Quart.

Wed. 5: Clowdy but little rain all seems tolerable Quiet on our lines wee are still getting logs and wood.

Thurs. 6: Clear & pleasant all seems quiet nothing new of note.

Fri. 7: Clear & pleasant heavy shelling on the James River early this morning all quiet in the evening a suden [sudden] change in the weather at night high winds & cold all night & next morning.

Sat. 8: Cold & windy all seems tolerable still on the lines.

Sun. 9: Clear & cold I went to the ditches to see all the men no work to day very disagreeably cold Beef flower & Rice. B. Snow was shot of Company D. for dessertion[131] [desertion].

Mon. 10: Cool & clear some shelling on the left this morning.

Tues. 11: More pleasant & clear still in the woods our Regt. came out of the trenches in reserve near the Iron Bridge.

Wed. 12: Clear & warm Lt. & myself 16 men ordered to go up the Cannal [canal][132] 7 miles to chop wood we started up the Canall on a wood Boat from the yard in town with tents & 5 days rations at sundown began to rain & rained very hard all wett landed at 9 P.M. & dark stop rain when we was landing Camped on the Bank for the night.

Thurs. 13: Clear & windy a little cool we moved up in the woods & Pitched tents & grinding axes & making malls [mauls] & making ready for work to Morrow our Brigade drawn 2 months wages our Regt. in reserve.

Fri. 14: Clear & pleasant went to chopping & Broak [broke] 5 axes & I had to go to town after more I went to the Co. & got my money an order for all detail men to go in.

Sat. 15: Clear more broken axes some had to go after more My furlough has gone in for 30 days on a recruit.

Sun. 16: Clear No work to day Most all the Men is garn [gone] to the waggon yards on pass Lt. Yowell is garn to Richmond on 48 hours pass all seems quiet on the lines.

Mon. 17: Clear I had to go after Rations drawed 7 days for 18 men 1/3 lb. Bacon Each 1 lb. flour per day & Brought it up on a horse cart the first I ever drove Jack Sled Division Hospital with Jaunders[133] I got hear after dark all quiet in town.

Tues. 18: Cloudy & pleasant no rain nothing new in the woods.

Wed. 19: Clear & Pleasant we are still Chopping wood.

Thurs. 20: Clear & warm day cool night I went down to camp to see whether my furlough had come in & carried 2 new axes and a couple of lbs. of soap with me back to woods & no furlough.

Fri. 21: Clear & cool nights and Big frosts My furlough come in this evening I went down but was too late to get off Saturday so I came out to the Wagon yard & staid all night.

Sat. 22: Clowdy & high winds & cold I [am] making Preparations to go home my furlough in hand.

Sun. 23: Started home at 5 A.M. & landed in Lynchburg at 5 P.M. & walked home 15 miles By 10 oclock at night of the same day.




Nov. 20, 1864: I leave home for Lynchburg and stay all night in Town and Start for Petersburg Tuesday morning at 8 oclock.

[1] Robert Hicks had two entries in separate locations for March 14th, 1862. The first entry seems to be a record of service and payment kept with the diary while the second is in the personal diary.

[2] Records show that the closest match to the name in the diary is Captain Alexander Jordan of Company E in the 34th Virginia Infantry.

[3] The entry here suddenly changes to March 20th, but it is a continuation of March 14th. It is possible Robert Hicks was interrupted at the beginning of the entry and continued it on March 20th.

[4] Page 3 of Book 1 and part of separate service record.

[5] Page 4 of Book 1 and part of the separate service record document kept with diary.

[6] Page 3 of Book 1 and part of the separate service record document kept with diary.

[7] This refers to Major General Benjamin Huger of the Confederate Army, who served under Major General Winfield Scott in the Mexican-American War. He resigned his position as Major from the U.S. Military after the fall of Fort Sumter and shortly after enlisted with the Provisional Army of Virginia.

[8] “Yestady” is a shortened form of “yesterday” used often by Hicks.

[9] Hicks used the word “minutes” twice in a row in this entry.

[10] Lt. William Fellers, Co. I.

[11] The swamp is located by the Chickahominy River in eastern Virginia. It is named after the Chickahominy Native Americans.

[12] This is likely in reference to the Battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic, which took place June 8-9, 1862. The battles were part of General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley campaign and they earned Jackson fame among those in the Confederacy as he defeated two Union armies in two days.

[13] The following part of the June 16th, 1862 entry is part of the separate record Hicks kept with his diary for payments and service.

[14] General J.E.B Stuart famously led his cavalry around Union General George B. McClellan’s forces on June 12th, 1862. Stuart scouted the Union army and provided the information to General Robert E. Lee, which allowed the Confederates to defend Richmond and push back Union forces.

[15] For clarification, Robert Hicks used the word “clost” many times to mean close.

[16] Chaffin’s Bluff sits approximately 7 miles south of Richmond. It was later the site of the Battle of Chaffin’s Farm aka The Battle of New Market Heights in September 1864.

[17] The name written here is faded and illegible.

[18] John Quarles Leftwich, Co I., and James D.K Mays, Co. I., both died of disease 7/2/62 (likely Typhoid)

[19] “Puncheon” is a type wood that has one side cut to be flat. In this case, Hicks likely means that the caskets were closed and covered by a row of puncheon wood.

[20] William R. Witt, Co. E., died of disease 7/5/62.

[21] John W. Sledd, Co I. Sledd survived the war.

[22]Chimborazo Hospital was a large Confederate military hospital in Richmond, Virginia. Its location surrounding several railroads made it a prime choice to send sick and wounded soldiers for care and treatment throughout the Civil War.

[23] The diary reads “sent all the off to the hospital”. The word “sick” seems to fit best into the sentence to fill in the gap.

[24] The following part of the July 18th, 1862 entry is part of the separate records Hicks kept with the diary for payments and services.

[25] Adolphus M. Goode, Co I. Goode was captured at Farmville 4/6/65 and released 7/1/65.

[26] Christopher Claudis enlisted 3/12/62 as a private. Reenlisted 5/23/62. Died in hospital date circa 1863, date unknown. The 2nd Virginia Heavy Artillery was reorganized in May 1862 as the 22nd Virginia Battalion of Infantry.

[27] Thomas P. Goode and Sidney V. Goode (2nd Virginia Artillery) were likely brothers. Both enlisted 1/14/62 at Chesterfield Co. Sidney was arrested, confined, and court marshalled for desertion summer of 1863. Thomas spent time sick in Lynchburg General Hospital and later Chimbarazo General Hospital. He was captured near Farmville 4/6/65 and sent to City Point.

[28] James H. Eubank. Co. I, died of disease 7/20/62.

[29] Liberty, Virginia was renamed Bedford in 1890 and was the hometown for many in the 34th Virginia.

[30] This is likely in reference to the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia.

[31] William H. Woolfolk, Co I.

[32] John W. Brown, Co. I, died of disease 8/12/1862, Albert T. Nance, Co. I, died of disease 8/1862

[33] Charles W. Adkinson, Co. I, was under arrest 7/62, he deserted on 6/8/63 and again on 8/8/64.

[34] Hicks began to write something here, but marked it out.

[35] The last word is too faded to read.

[36] A few words seem to be missing here. It is likely Hicks meant to write “it was very late before I/we went to sleep”.

[37] A word is missing here. It is likely Hicks meant to write “the Regt. came in under a heavy rain…”

[38] A word is missing here. It is likely Hicks meant to write “raining off and on all day…”

[39] Goode and Adams are likely fathers of soldiers of the 34th.

[40] Robert H. Roberts, Co. G, died 10/8/1862 of Typhoid fever.

[41] Here the diary begins a series of dating errors. It seems as though Robert Hicks skipped writing on Sunday, October 12th, 1862. However, he continued on Monday, October 13th, 1862 but wrote it as Monday, October 12th. Hicks continued writing the dates incorrectly through October 16th, 1862.

[42] This is a second entry for Thursday, October 16th, 1862. Hicks likely wrote a second one after realizing the previous entries were improperly dated. The dated entries following this entry are correct.

[43] Hicks’ first diary book ends here. The second book begins with the entry on December 23, 1862.

[44] There is a James W. Laughlin of Co. E. Billie Laughlin is likely a father or brother of James.

[45] Likely a vaccination against smallpox.

[46] The photocopy of the original document cuts off at the beginning of the last sentence. Using the appearance of what is visible and an established pattern, it is likely that the cut-off sentence is the phrase, “All quiet”.

[47] As in a work detail or a group of men given a task of work.

[48] “Drawing” beef, bacon, flour, or any other type of food had to do with rations in the Confederate Army.

[49] It is unknown why Hicks wrote “Feb. 1.5”. The correct date is “Feb. 1”.

[50] The dates are written next to each other in what seems to be the same diary entry. Hicks likely forgot to write on the 8th and included it in his entry for the 9th.

[51] This is a good indication of where Hicks was located at the time. The Battle of Seven Pines was fought at the end of spring in 1862 in Henrico Country, Virginia.

[52] The news seems to be false. No states seceded from the Union after 1861.

[53] The meaning of the “bricked” prisoners is unknown.

[54] A Southern style of cooked green foods.

[55] A son of General Henry Alexander Wise of the Confederacy.

[56] It is possible Hicks believed he would be home on the 17th the following month. However, he did not receive a furlough and remained with his company.

[57] In this entry, Hicks placed a line after “with” and before “wind”, and wrote “rain” in between the two words. Either he meant to write “cloudy with rain and wind”, or he meant to write” cloudy with rain” and not “cloudy with wind”.

[58] The Richmond Bread Riots were led by Mary Jackson on April 2, 1863. The riots involved mostly armed women that allegedly stole thousands of dollars worth of food and merchandise. No one was killed during this incident and the militia was called in to restore order.

[59] The closest match to the records of Confederate generals is Major General Arnold Elzey.

[60] Appears to be George W, Toms, Henry Overstreet, Robert G. Lyle, and possibly B.A. Mitchell, all solders in the 34th Virginia Infantry.

[61] Some research shows that the previous day, April 5th, 1863, was Easter Sunday. However, it is curious that Hicks made no mention of it on the actual holiday and proceeded to mention it on the following day. It is possible he was required to work on Easter Sunday and was given the following day on the 6th off from duties. As far as whether Hicks meant that it was a “holy day” or a “holiday, it is unknown, but either one seems to suffice in this particular case.

[62] The entry continues, but the date changes to April 11th, 1863.

[63] The York River is to the northeast of Williamsburg, Virginia.

[64] “Shoat” is a young pig.

[65] An ordinary was an inn or a tavern. In this instance, Hicks is referring to the Six-Mile Ordinary, which was a tavern located just six miles away from Williamsburg. The tavern was used as a gathering place in the 1770s to establish the James City Resolves, which refused importing British goods. It was later used for a gathering to declare support for American Independence. The building stopped operating as a tavern shortly after the Civil War and was converted into a general merchandise store.

[66] Refers to Diascund Bridge which is in present day Toano, Virginia.

[67] “Shod” seems to be in reference to the availability of shoes, both for men and horses.

[68] The only part of the numbers visible is “1.0”. The rest of the number has fallen off the page and is therefore incomplete. Based off an earlier entry, the number is likely “1.00”

[69] General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson died on May 10th, 1863 due to complications after being wounded at the Battle of Chancellorsville.

[70] Book 2-A of the Hicks diary ends here and resumes with Book 2-B on May 23, 1863.

[71] The Pamunkey River is a tributary of the York River in Virginia.

[72] Sesesh was a common nickname for Confederates during the war. It is short for secessionist.

[73] The word after “layed out on the…” is missing. “Ground” is the most likely word to fit in the sentence.

[74] A Word seems to be missing. It is likely Hicks meant to write “afternoon” or “evening”.

[75] It is unclear whether he means “holiday” or holy day” and what that day might have been.

[76] The “Lainsville” that Hicks refers to here is the small area of Lanesville in King William County, Virginia, which is near Williamsburg and the York River.

[77] “Matterperoni” seems to be the spelling used by Hicks. The closest match near the York River is the Mattaponi River, which connects to the York River. The Mattaponi River has also been known by several names over the years, which could explain the differences in spelling.

[78] The last word of the entry seems to be cut off.

[79] Union General Robert Huston Milroy was defeated at the Second Battle of Winchester on June 15, 1863 by Confederate General Richard S. Ewell. Roughly 3,000 of Milroy’s soldiers were captured.

[80] To plait or to braid.

[81] Hicks wrote the word “all” twice in a row.

[82] Hicks made two entries for July 6th, 1863.

[83] The capture of Vicksburg, Mississippi on July 4th, 1863 was a decisive victory for the Union. It effectively ended Confederate control of the Mississippi River and cut off the western states from the eastern theater of the war.

[84] The August 12th, 1863 entry is faded. The words after “all quiet” are almost entirely illegible, but the words “last night” seem to fit best.

[85] The last portion of the entry is too faded to read.

[86] At this point, Hicks starts to place symbols that look like an “X” or a cross either at the beginning of an entry that contains the name of a fellow soldier, or right next to the names within an entry. The symbol seems to represent soldiers that Hicks wanted to remember, including those that died during the war and those that seemed to survive the war. In some cases, the symbol is placed, but no names are present in the entry. If no names are present, it is likely that Hicks wanted to remember those particular dates for personal reasons.

[87] Hicks wrote “Left Virginia” on the side of the page next to this entry.

[88] Branch water is water coming from either a brook or a stream. What Hicks means is that the company had no extra water to bring with them and had to rely on nearby natural sources.

[89] Hicks seems to have written “to” twice in a row.

[90] “Drawers” means underwear.

[91] Wappoo Creek sit on James Island and connects the Ashley and Stono Rivers.

[92] Named after South Carolina Confederate General Maxey Gregg.

[93] Fort Moultrie is a fort that was built on Sullivan’s Island in South Carolina. It was designed to protect Charleston. It was built in 1776 and remained in use until 1947. The Fort received its name from William Moultrie, who defended the area from the British fleet in 1776 during the American Revolution.

[94] Flies were canvas awnings put up by soldiers to provide shade and shelter.

[95] A “gill”, or sometimes “jill”, is an old British measurement to determine an individual serving of whiskey or wine. It is equal to about four U.S. fluid ounces.

[96] The title “Major” is written over another word. Hicks likely used the wrong title first and wrote Major over it in correction.

[97] A part of the word is cut off, but it is likely meant as “conversation”.

[98] The same entry seems to continue through the next few entries until February 13, 1864.

[99] The name does not seem to match any records of Confederate Generals.

[100] Hicks seemingly forgot to write a word in this entry. It is likely he meant to write “little snack a bout 2 oclock in the evening”.

[101] Likely an abbreviation for quartermaster.

[102] Yelverton Preston Key, of Company G.

[103] Wadmalaw Island is located in Charleston County, South Carolina.

[104] Likely the Tugaloo River, South Carolina.

[105] Armstead Beheler, of Company I.

[106] A type of framework or bridge.

[107] Book 3 of the Hicks Diary Collection ends here and begins again on April 15th, 1864 in Book 8.

[108] At this point, the diary ends the entry for April 23, 1864 and continues with May 4, 1864. However, the entry for April 23, 1864 continues three pages after the original entry. The pages in between them seem to reference the deaths of fellow soldiers and other events, such as the date of the Battle of the Crater at Petersburg, Virginia.

[109] Thomas Henry Keys enlisted in Co I on 3/20/62, he died in Adams Run, SC on 4/2/64.

[110] This is the first time that Hicks marks an entry with an “X”, but the entry includes no mention of a soldier’s name.

[111] The first sentence of this entry belonged on the first page of the Vol. 8 of Hicks’ diary. It followed the first part of the April 23, 1864 entry, but ended on the bottom of the page and continues several pages later with the rest of the May, 1864 entries.

[112] Hicks’ writings appear to say “P&R R.R.”, leaving out the full name of the railroad. After some research into possible railroad names, the closest match was the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad (or the R&P R.R.), which was likely what Hicks was writing about.

[113] Research shows that there was no “General Whiten” that served in the Confederate military. The closest match found was Brigadier General William Whiting, who was at the Battle of Petersburg only a few weeks after this entry. It is possible that Brig. General Whiting was in the area at the time and that Hicks simply misspelled the name.

[114] “Rump” is an old word that means buttocks.

[115] This is likely a mispelling of the word “vedette”, which was a mounted sentry posted ahead of picket lines during the Civil War. Robert Hicks continued to use this word on occasion in his journal, but most often spelled it as “videt”.

[116] Robert Hicks’ diary mentions a “Big Gen. Grace”, but after researching the list of Confederate Generals, the closest and most likely match was a Brigadier General Archibald Gracie Jr, who did lead the 43rd Alabama Infantry and was later killed at Petersburg in December, 1864. What was written in Hicks’ diary is likely a misspelling.

[117] A stand of colors was a battle flag belonging to a group of soldiers, usually a battalion. Battle flags at the time were often simply called colors. So, in this case, the Confederate forces captured eight separate Yankee battle flags.

[118] Hicks is referring to the noise of occasional gunfire.

[119] Bombproofs were shelters dug into the ground for soldiers to seek protection from cannonading.

[120] Enfilade is a volley of gunfire directed along a line from end to end.

[121] Traverse is U-shaped detour in a trench to help protect from enfilade fire.

[122] This describes the Battle of the Crater, which was fought at Petersburg, Virginia on July 30th, 1864. The explosion occurred around 5 A.M, which gave the Union the initial advantage, but the Confederate forces turned the tide and retained control of Petersburg.

[123] The word following “Elliott’s” is faded, but it is most likely “Brig” for brigade.

[124] A “parapet” is a protective wall or earth defense along the top of a trench or other place of concealment for troops.

[125] A “sapper” is a combat engineer that serves multiple purposes. They are often placed in charge of construction or demolitions.

[126] Corporal William A. Gibbs, Co. I.

[127] Jesse D. Hodges, Co. I, died two days later on 9/11/64.

[128] The Confederacy first started celebrating Thanksgiving, or a day to give thanks, in 1861, two years prior to Abraham Lincoln’s first proclamation of a Thanksgiving Day in the United States. However, unlike the Union Thanksgiving, which has traditionally been in November, the Confederacy practiced it mostly in September.

[129] Vittles is a nickname for prepared foods.

[130] Sweet sorghum syrup is derived from sorghum plants with high sugar content and is sometimes referred to simply as molasses.

[131] Records show that Byrd Snow of Company D. was shot for desertion on October 8th, 1864.

[132] Based on the locations provided in the diary, Hicks may be referring to the Roanoke Canal, which was established in 1824. The canal extends over 300 miles from North Carolina to the mountains of Virginia.

[133] It is most likely that Hicks meant “jaundice”, which is a yellowing of the skin.